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Date Events in Religion and Philosophy (Updated April, 2012) General History Comments: How has Western thought been shaped? Links and Other Map Link Citations or URLS Extended Comments
Before the Big Bang This category, "before the Big Bang" is an error. Why?  Because this is a timeline. "Before" the Big Bang there was no time (therefore, saying "before" is even an error). The universe existed as a singularity. There was no space in the singularity, and, therefore, there was no time. The universe has always existed, however, time has not. There was never a point in time that the universe did not exist. This is true whether you believe a God created the universe or the Big Bang did it. There was no "before" the Big Bang because there was no time. "Before" requires there to be time. This whole category in a big fat error. The mass of the universe was not created. It always existed. It was in existence when time began, therefore, it has no beginning.         
c.14 Billion Years Ago Note: Much of the evolution timeline chronology comes from:  URL: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_evolution c.14 Billion Years BCE, Big Bang and birth of our universe This Wikipedia timeline is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License ( URL: www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html). It uses material from  URL: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_evolution.        
c. 4500 Million Years Ago According to Genesis story, the earth was created on the 1st day, but before the sun and moon. The earth forms as an planet and revolves around the young Sun.          
c. 4450 Million Years Ago According to Genesis story, the moon was created on the 4th day (Gen.1:14-19) The moon forms from a Mars-sized planet colliding with Earth The biblical writers state that God created two great lights. Apparently, they did not seem to understand that the moon was not a light source but only a reflector (reflecting the sun's light).  Bill Nye (the Science guy) pointed this out in a lecture in Waco, TX in 2006 CE. A woman stood up and shouted "We believe in God!". She then gathered up her children and stomped out of the lecture. Link       
c. 4100 Million Years Ago   The surface of the earth cools enough for the crust to solidify          
c. 4000 Million Years Ago   Life begins to appear on Earth.      Wiki      
    Beginning of the Proterozoic Eon.          
2500 Million Years Ago   Beginning of the Proterozoic Eon. It ends about 542 million Mya. Oxygen begins to collect in the atmosphere. The proterozoic eon represents the period of time before complex life forms appear in abundance. It consists of three eras: Paleoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic, and Neoproterozoic.        
2100 Mya   Complex cells appear.          
1200 Mya   Sexual reproduction evolves.          
c. 1000 Million Years Ago   Multicellular organizations appear          
c. 900 Million Years Ago   There are 481 18-hour days in a year. The Earth has been slowing down ever since.          
c. 600 Mya   Sponges, Flat worm and Jelly Fish appear          
c. 566 Million Years Ago              
    Beginning of the Paleozoic Era          
c. 542 Mya   Beginning of the Paleozoic Era. The Paleozoic Era is one of three eras of the Phanerozoic eon. The three eras are composed of six periods with a combined span from about 542 Mya to 251 Mya.  The three eras of the Phanerozoic eon are the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and the Cenozoic ers. The six geologic periods of the Paleozoic era are the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous and Permian.        
542 Mya   Cambrian period (first of six geologic periods of the Paleozoic Era). The Cambrian period spans from 542 Mya to about 570 Mya. It is a matter of debate as to how many phylum existem prior to the Cambrain explosion. Some suggest that many existed but could not fossilize due to lack of skeletal structure or hard outer shell. The Cambrian period has as its starting point the appearance of early arthropods known as trilobites. Also marking the beginning of the Cambrian period are primitive reef-forming animals called archeolcyathids.The end of the Cambrian is set at a massive faunal change that appears to be an extinction event. The Cambrian explosion, a rapid set of evolutionary changes, creates all the major body plans (phyla) of modern animals.      
c. 505 Million Years Ago   First fish (jawless)          
488 Mya   Ordovivian period of the Paleozoic era. This period was created to distinguish fauna that were distinct from the Cambrian and Silurian. The Ordovician period started at a major extinction event called the Cambrian-Ordovician extinction events some time about 488.3 ± 1.7 million years ago (Ma) and lasted for about 44.6 million years. It ended with another major extinction event about 443.7 ± 1.5 Ma (ICS, 2004) that wiped out 60% of marine genera. Wiki      
c. 475 Million Years Ago   First plants appear on dry land. Note: These plants were not grasses, which did not appear until 35 Million Years BCE          
c. 450 Million Years Ago   Arthropods, with an exoskeleton that provides support and prevents water loss, are the first animals to invade the land. Among the first are Myriapoda (millipedes and centipedes), later followed by spiders and scorpions.  URL: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_evolution          
444 Mya   Silurian period of the Paleozoic era. The Silurian period is marked by new species of index fossils (Graptolites - fauna) in rocks. Wiki      
416 Mya   Devonian period of the Paleozoic era. First insects appear.          
359 Mya   Carboniferous period of the Paleozoic era. In the Devonian period, sea levels dropped. Sea levels began to rise in the beginning of the Carboniferous period and then dropped in the mid-Carboniferous period.  The drop in sea level triggered a major marine extinction. Conifer trees (Swamp forest trees) appear, which turn into coal.         Some have hypothesized that large amounts of wood and fauna were buried because the animals, insects and bacteria that normally would eat the decaying matter had not yet evolved. This deposit of biologically-produced carbon led to a buildup of surplus oxygen in the atmosphere. This allowed animals and insects to grow to enormous sizes because they were not constrained by their respiratory system to deiffuse oxygen. Today, oxygen is 21% of our breathable atmosphere. Then, it probably was around 35%.
300 Mya   Permian period, the last period of the Paleozoic era. Fossilized shells of two types of invertebrates are used to identify Permian strata. Wiki      
c. 300 Million Years Ago   According to current plate tectonic theory, all continents existed as one super continent called Pangea.   Wiki      
c. 256 Million Years Ago   Large herbivores exist          
    Beginning of the Mesozoic Era          
251 Mya   Beginning of the Mesozoic Era (second of three geoloic eras that make up the Phanerozoic eon). This era spans from about 251 Mya to about 65 Mya (the start of the Cenozoic era. The Mesozoic Era consists of three periods: Triassic, Jurassic and Cretacious.        
251 Mya   Triassic Period (small reptiles, crocodiles and frogs)          
c. 251 Million Years Ago   The Permian-Triassic extinction event wipes out about 95% of all animal species, the most severe mass extinction known.          
c. 199 Million Years Ago   Jurassic Period - Popular dinosaurs appear          
180 Million Years Ago   According to current plate tectonic theory, Pangea begins to break up.          
150 Million Years Ago According to Genesis story, birds were created on the 5th day (Gen. 1:20-23) Birds Appear The earliest bird was Archaeopteryx (155 to 150 Mya). It had feathers and wings, but it also had teeth similar to a small carnivorous dinosaur. It had both bird features and theropod features, making it truly a transitional creature. Wiki      
c. 145 Million Years Ago   Cretaceous Period - First snakes and modern mammals appear          
    Beginning of the Cenozoic Era          
65.5 Mya   Beginning of the Cenozoic Era, which consisted of two periods Paleogene and Neogene          
65.5 Mya   Beginning of the Paleogen period, which is one of the two periods of the Cenezoic era.          
65 Million Years Ago   The Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event (sixth extinction event) wipes out about half of all animal species including all non-avian dinosaurs, probably because of a cooling of the climate precipitated by the giant impact of a meteor: iridium powder from asteroid forms a layer that covers the whole Earth.           
45 Mya According to Genesis story, whales were created on the 5th day (Gen. 1:20-23) Whales appear          
35 Mya According to Genesis story, grass were created on the 3rd day (Gen.1:11-13). Grass appears          
23 Mya   Beginning of the Neogene period, which is the second of two periods in the Cenozoic era.          
22 Million Years Ago    India collides with Asia, causing the rise of Himalaya and the Tibetan plateau.           
3.3 Million Years Ago    The Australopithecus afarensis infant female, known today as Salem (aka Lucy's baby) died in Dikika, Ethiopia. See 2000 CE for her discovery.   Wiki Ethiopia    
3.18 Million Years Ago    The Australopithecus afarensis female, known today as Lucy, died in Hadar, Ethiopia. See 1974 CE for her discovery. Lucy shocked the paleoanthropological community by having a small brain and body size yet human teeth and bipedal hips and knew structure. At the time, it was believed that brain size evolved before these traits. Wiki  


 
3.7 Mya   Foot prints were preserved in volcanic ash in Laetoli in Tanzania (the Laetoli footprints). They are believed to be either of the genus australopithecus or a very eary homo genus.     Tanzania    
2.5 Mya   Believed to be the earliest range for Homo Habilis (aka "Handy Man" for the use of stone tools). Many fossils exist of Homo habilis. Habilis lived in Africa. Habilis was short with long arms but a more human like face. Homo habilis was of the genus "Homo" versus, say, the genus Australopithecus.        
1.9 Mya   Homo rudolfensis lived in Kenya. As of 2007 CE, only one skull has been found of rudolfensis. Rudolfensis lived in Kenya. Because there is such a dearth of information on rudolfensis, its place in the ancestral line is under debate. Rudolfensis is believed to have been bipedal and did have a large brain.   Kenya    
1.9 MYA   Homo ergaster (aka "Working Man") lived in East and South Africa. There are many fossils of ergaster. Ergaster is sometime classified as a subspecies of erectus. There is a debate as to whether or not ergaster or later erectus is the direct ancestor of homo sapiens. Most seem to believe it was erectus.        
1.8 Mya   Homo georgicus lived in the area now the Republic of Georgia. Homo georgicus is very similar to Home ergaster but with a small brain volume. Only a couple of fossils have been found.     Republic of Georgia    
1.8 Million Years Ago    Homo erectus evolves in Africa and migrates to other continents, primarily south Asia (lived in Africa, Java, China and Caucasus). Many fossils exist for erectus. The new discoveries that Homo habilius and Homo erectus were contemporaries does not exclude the possibility that erectus evolved from habilius in some other isolation location, while the species we refer to as habilius continued to exist as contemporaries for some time.   Caucasus    
1.44 Million Years Ago   Homo habilis - Fossils found in 2007 CE date a habilius to 1.4 Mya. However, they may have existed as far back as 2.5 Mya. These recent finds show that Homo habilius and Homo erectus were contemporaries. It was previously thought that Homo erectus descended from Homo habilius.    Link  

 
800,000 years ago   Homo cepranensis lived near Rome, Italy. Only a single skull cap has been found, so there is not enough material to make a complete analysis.     Rome    
475,000 Years Ago   Homo heidelbergensis lived in Europe. They may be the ancestor of the Neanderthals. Many fossils exist for heidelbergensis. He used stone tools, dyed things with red ochre and used hand axes.          
350,000 years ago   Characteristics of Homo neanderthalensis (Neanderthal man) begin to appear in Europe, but the complete Neandertal will not be present for another 220,000 years. Neanderthals were about 5'5" for men and 5'2" for women. They had a very robust body (barrel-shaped chest) and a big wide nose.        
200,000 Years Ago   Homo rhodesiensis lived in Rhodesia (Now Zambia). One one fossil exists, so little is known. Its face was broad like Neanderthal's. However, its exact classification is still under debate.          
195,000 Years Ago    Omo1, Omo2 (Ethiopia, Omo river) are the earliest known Homo sapiens. These fossils were found by Richard Leakey's team at the Omo Kibish site near the Omo Right in SW Ethiopia.          
160,000 Years  Ago   Homo sapiens (Homo sapiens idaltu) in Ethiopia, Awash River, Herto village, practice mortuary rituals and butcher hippos. Their dead bodies are later covered by volcanic rocks.          
130,000 Years Ago   Homo neanderthalensis (Neanderthal man) evolves from Homo heidelbergensis and lives in Europe and the Middle East, makes magic, buries the dead and cares for the sick. Mitochondrial DNA studies have shown that Neanderthals were not subspecies of Homo Sapiens. Many fossils exist for Home neanderthalensis. Neanderthals used hand axes and spears with separately attached spearheads. They buried their dead. Wiki  

 
100,000 Years Ago   The first anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) appear in Africa some time before this, they are also evolved from Homo heidelbergensis.          
50,000 Years Ago   Modern humans expand from Asia to Australia (to become today's aborigines) and Europe. Expansion along the coasts happens faster than expansion inland. Neanderthals also appear in Asia.          
43,000 BCE   Creswell Crags caves (Britain) begin to be inhabited by modern humans.     Creswell Crags Caves    
40,000 BCE   Modern humans begin entering the Americas.   Wiki  
 
35,000 BCE   Lebombo bone deposited in a cave in the Lebombo mountains of Swaziland. It's a baboon's fibular with 29 distinct notches cut into the bone (perhaps for counting?)     Swaziland    
33,000 Years Ago   Neanderthals enter Europe 33K to 25K years ago.           
30,000 Years Ago   Modern humans enter North America from Siberia in numerous waves, some later waves across the Bering land bridge, but early waves probably by island-hopping across the Aleutians. At least two of the first waves had left few or no genetic descendants among Americans by the time Europeans arrived across the Atlantic Ocean. Humans reach Solomon's. Humans move into Japan.  URL: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_evolution     Siberia    
25,000 Years Ago   Neanderthals die out leaving Homo sapiens and Homo floresiensis as the only living species of the genus Homo.           
20,000 BCE   Ishango bone deposited in the African area of Ishango, which was centered near the headwaters of the Nile River at Lake Edward (now on the border between modern-day Uganda and Congo). It had a sharp piece of quartz attached to one end (perhaps for engraving or writing). It was marked with what are thought to be tally marks for counting.   Wiki  
 
18 Thousand Ago   Upper Paleolithic Cave Paintings in France  URL: www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/5579/uparticle.html  for photos see:  URL: www.jimhopper.com/paleo.html        
16 Thousand Ago   Homo floresiensis existed in the Liang Bua limestone cave on Flores, remote Indonesian island.          
#######   Cave paintings begin in Creswell Crags caves of Britian. From Wikipedia, "Thin layers of calcium carbonate flowstone overlaying some of the engravings were dated using the uranium-series disequilibrium method, which showed the oldest of these flowstones to have formed 12,800 years ago. This provides a minimum age for the underlying engraving. The scientists and archaeologists concluded it was most likely the engravings were contemporary with evidence for occupation at the site during the late glacial interstadial at around 13,000-15,000 years ago."        
#######   Everything before this time is considered Paleolithic. Everything before 10,000 BCE was considered the Paleolithic (Old Stone Age)        
    Start of the Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) from 10,000 - 8000 BCE.          
10000 BCE   Start of the Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) from 10,000 - 8000 BCE.          
10000 BCE   Paleo-Indians enter America.  URL: www.sacred-texts.com/time/timeline.htm        
9000 BCE   Start of the Neolithic (New Stone Age) from 9000 - 4500 BCE.          
9000 BCE   Extinction of woolly mammoth. Population Link:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Population_curve.svg
Human population about 5 million.      
9000 BCE   Settling on Mediterranean isles started. Estonia settlement begins.          
9500 BCE   Ice age ends, catastrophic worldwide sea level rise (100 meters?). Black Sea floods, thought to be origin of Ancient Near East Flood story.  URL: www.sacred-texts.com/time/timeline.htm        
8700 BCE   Britain begins to be inhabited by Maglemosian peoples.          
8400 BCE   Evidence of dog domestication in area now Idaho.          
8300 BCE   Nomadic hunters arrive in England.          
8000 BCE   Beginning of 8th Millennium BCE          
8000 BCE   Norway is inhabited.           
7700 BCE   Flint tools, together with dismembered mammoth, were found in Mesoamerica at the mammoth killsites of Iztapan in the valley of Mexico near Texcoco. They date between 7700 - 7300 BCE.          
6000 BCE   Beginning of 6th Millennium BCE          
6000 BCE   Organized agriculture and large building construction appear in the Nile Valley of Egypt.          
5600 BCE   Proposed date for the flooding of the Black Sea area, which is believed to be the source of the Gilgamesh tale. According to the theory, the Mediterranean Sea was swollen due to melting glaciers. It broke through (created it) the Bosporus (aka Istanbul Strait) and shot into the Black Sea with a force 200 times the force of Niagara Falls. Each day, the Black Sea rose 6 inches (15 cm). It flooded 60,000 mile (155,000 km) of land area. Wiki  
See also: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/blacksea/ax/frame.html
5000 BCE   Beginning of 5th Millennium BCE          
5000 BCE   The Badari begin to inhabit Upper Egypt.          
5500 BCE Several Bible stories seem to be borrowed from Sumerian culture. It was the Summerians whom built the ziggurats and from who the Epic of Gilgamesh comes. The Sumerians developed the first known writing system. Clay tablets from as early as 3100 BCE exist. Farmers and fishermen begin to settle the Mesopotamian plain (now Iraq). Small villages grew into large settlements. These people would become known as the Sumerians. The people and language was not Semitic.   Link     From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumerians - The Sumerians were a non-Semitic people and were at one time believed to have been invaders, as a number of linguists believed they could detect a substrate language beneath Sumerian. However, the archaeological record shows clear uninterrupted cultural continuity from the time of the Early Ubaid period (5200-4500 BC C-14, 6090-5429 calBC) settlements in southern Mesopotamia. The Sumerian people who settled here farmed the lands in this region that were made fertile by silt deposited by the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers.
5200 BCE   A Neolithic (prehistoric) society begins on the Island of Malta.          
5198 BCE In 325 CE, Eusebius of Caesarea calculated the beginning of time as 5198 years before the Incarnation.    In his Chronicle, Eusebius of Caesarea innovates the "canon table," a device to coordinate chronological events depicted in the Bible. Abraham's life structures the chronicle; events are matched to the age of Abraham and then to the year of various monarchies.   URL: www.cabinetmagazine.org/issues/13/timelines.php        
4500 BCE   Start of the Chalcolithic (Bronze/Stone Age) 4500 - 3150 BCE          
4400 BCE   The Badarian culture produced evidence of agriculture in Upper Egypt. About forty settlements and six hundred graves have been located.   Wiki      
 BCE Ussher Date for Creation            
4004 BCE Creation: According to Christian timelines (Ussher), the earth and Adam and Eve were created.   This date follows the traditional timeline of Biblical history as suggested by Bishop James Ussher (1581-1656), Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of All Ireland, and Vice-Chancellor of Trinity College in Dublin. For most Christian dates, I will follow traditional Ussher dates.      
c. 4000 BCE   Civilizations lived at Hamoukar, the world's oldest known city in Syria. Monuments and relics have been dated to this time. Evidence suggests an organized city existed. It was a huge city over 750 acres with over 25,000 people living there. Located between Tigris and Euphrates rivers. See:  URL: meme.essortment.com/hamoukar_rjcf.htm World Population about 7 Million       
c.4000 BCE   An ancient Chinese people known as Yangshao existed along the central Yellow River in China. "discovered in 1921 in Henan Province. The culture flourished mainly in the provinces of Henan, Shaanxi and Shanxi." - URL: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yangshao_culture They co-existed with the Dawenkou (4100 to 2600 BCE) and the Longshan (3000 to 2000 BCE). There is no Flood-like interruption in their existence. They also had their own language before the Tower of Babel.        
3874 BCE Usshers date for birth of Seth (3874 - 2962) - Gen.4:25 - Who allegedly lived 912 years.            
3874 BCE Usshers date for Zillah in Gen. 4:22 "Zillah also had a son, Tubal-Cain, who forged all kinds of tools out of bronze and iron.  This date is a couple of hundred years before the Bronze age, let alone the iron age.  The problem is - The iron age is nearly 2700 years away (in 1200 BCE). How did he know about iron? This anachronism shows that the author was writing much later, during a time when iron had been common place for a long time. This is just one of many times iron is described as existing in the early bronze period.        
3769 BCE Ussher date for birth of Seth's son, Enosh.            
3761 BCE Jewish date for the creation of the world.   2ND CENTURY AD - Jewish scholar José ben Halafta calculates the exact length of time between Creation and the destruction of the Second Temple. By the Julian calendar, existence begins on Monday, 7 October 3761 BC at 10:10 pm.  URL: www.cabinetmagazine.org/issues/13/timelines.php        
3679 BCE Ussher date for birth of Enosh's son, Kenan (Gen.5:9), who allegedly lived 910 years.            
3609 BCE Ussher date for birth of Kenan's son, Mahalalel (Gen.5:12), who allegedly lived 895 years.            
3544 BCE Ussher date for birth of Mahalalel's son, Jared (Gen.5:15), who allegedly lived 962 years.            
 BCE              
3500 BCE   Early Bronze Age (c.3500 - 2000 BCE) in Near East          
3400 BCE   Ancient Egyptians develop proto-hieroglyphics. This was long before the Tower of Babel (where the Bible says the earth had only one language - Gen.11 - and then God created all the various languages). In 1998 a German archeological team excavating at Abydos (modern Umm el-Qa'ab) uncovered tomb U-j which belonged to a Pre-dynastic ruler, and recovered three hundred clay labels inscribed with proto-hieroglyphics, dating to circa 3400 BC. -  The Sumerians were also developing cuneiform script. Wiki      
3382 BCE Usshar date for the birth of Enoch, the father of Methuselah and claimed authour of the Book of Enoch.            
3317 BCE Ussher's date for the birth of Methuselah, who lived for 969 years (according to the Bible). This year was probably arrived at by substrating his age from the projected date of the flood, as he is said to have died in the year of the flood.            
c. 3300 BCE   Ice Man (Ötzi) was frozen in the Similaun Glacier in the Tirolean Ötztal Alps. He had tattoos, a small copper axe and flint dagger, fur robe, shoes of leather filled with grass.   In southern Austria (Tirol) near Italy.      
c. 3300 BCE   Temples of Karnak constructed in eastern bank of the Nile in Egypt during the Gerzean period (c. 4300 - c. 3100 BCE). Ruins still exist today.         
3200 BCE   The earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appear during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels          
3200 BCE   Beginning of Proto-Elamite period to 2700 BCE (Iran of today). They used to Proto-Elamite script writing system before the introduction of Elamite Cuneiform.   Wiki      
3200 BCE   Megalithic Passage Tombs of Newgrange, Knowth, Dowth, Fourknocks, Loughcrew and Tara built in present day County of Meath on the east coast of Ireland. Ruins still exist today. Link      
3130 BCE Usshar date for the birth of Lamech, the son of Methuselah, who allegedly lived 777 years.            
3100 BCE   Narmer founded the 1st dynasty of Egypt, and he reigned until 3050 BCE.. He was one of 9 rulers of the 1st dynasty.  We know this because of the Palermo stone. Wiki      
3082 BCE Usshar date for the death (or disappearance) of Enoch, who allegedly lived 300 years.            
3074 BCE Ussher's date for the death of Adam, who lived 930 years according to the Bible. Gen.5:5            
3050 BCE   Hor-Aha (aka Menes) became the 2nd ruler of the first Egyptian dynasty. He was thought to be the first in the dynasty until the Palermo Stone revealed earlier rulers.        
3050 BCE   Canaanite Byblos in Phoenicia (Lebanon/Cannaa) using pottery, copper, bronze, glass and tin alloy.    URL: www.drakesvision.com/timeline.html Link      
c. 3018 BCE   Djer became the 3rd ruler of the first Egyptian dynasty. I listed this as his year of rule because Hor-Aha was said to have reigned 32 years.        
3000 BCE   Beginning of 3rd Millennium BCE   World Population about 14 Million      
2977 BCE   Merneith became the 4th ruler of the first Egyptian dynasty. I listed this as his year because the Palermo Stone says Djer reigned "41 complete and partial years".        
2948 BCE Ussher's date for birth of Noah.            
2950 BCE   Stonehenge began to be built in Salisbury Plain in present Southern England. This is the date for the beginning of the building of Stonehenge. Phase one of building went from 2950-2900 BCE. Phase 2 from 2900-2400 and Phase 3 from 2550-1600. Amazingly, the people who built it, did not take a break for a world-wide flood.  Link      
2900 BCE   Beginning of the 29th Century B.C.E.           
2864 BCE Usshar date for the death of Enosh, who lived 905 years.            
2800 BCE   Beginning of the 28th Century B.C.E.           
2769 BCE Usshar date for the death of Kenan, who lived 910 years.            
2714 BCE Usshar date for the death of Mahalalel, who lived 895 years.            
2700 BCE   Beginning of the 27th Century B.C.E.           
2600 BCE   Beginning of Indus Script 2600 - 1900 BCE (now Pakistan and North West India). This language has not yet been deciphered.   Wiki      
2600 BCE   Beginning of the 26th Century B.C.E.           
2582 BCE Usshar date for the death of Jared, who lived 962 years.            
2686 BCE In most major cultures, you can point to tangible items that prove that their culture existed. There is no proof that the Torah existed until around 300 BCE. There is no proof that Isreal existed (as a nation) before around 900 BCE. Pyramids began to be built in Egypt during 3rd Dynasty.          
2589 BCE   Khufu (one of the giant pyramids) built by King Khufu. <sarcasm>Amazingly, none of these were destroyed in the Flood.</sarcasm>        
2560 BCE   Great Sphinx at Giza, a 189-foot long monument to King Khafra (Khafre)          
2558 BCE   Khafre (one of the giant pyramids) built by Kind Khafre, son of Khufu. Khafre was the 3rd King of the 4th Dynasty Link      
2500 BCE   Sumerian cunneform script existed. It showed that both Sumerian and Akkadian people lived in southern Mesopotamia, and both had unique languages. It was not true that- "the whole world had one language and a common speech." (Gen.11:1) See Archaeology: The Definitive Guide, p.159.c.2002, ISBN: 0-7607-4085-2      
2500 BCE   Beginning of the 25th Century B.C.E.           
2498 BCE   In Egypt, the Fifth Dynasty was started by Userkaf. There were nine rulers in the fifth dynasty, which lasted until 2345 BCE. We know so much about the 5th dynasty because of the Palermo Stone - an Egyptian stela of black basalt. It discussed most rulers of the 5th dynasty through ?. It also tells of the first dynasty. Wiki      
2487 BCE   Sahure became the 2nd ruler of the 5th Egyptian Dynasty.          
2477 BCE   Neferirkare Kakai became the 3rd ruler of the 5th Egyptian Dynasty.          
c. 2450 BCE   The Palermo Stone was created. It contains names of Egyptian kings from the 1st dynasty to the 3rd ruler (Neferirkare) of the 5th dynasty. It also discusses some military trips, flooding of the Nile,  According to:  http://www.antiquityofman.com/palermostone.html - "There are errors on the fragments. Cairo fragment 1 names "Jer" as a 1st Dynasty king, with a cartouche. Cartouches did not exist in the 1st Dynasty (they came into being from the 3rd Dynasty onwards). The scribe is attributing to earlier kings what was common practice in the 5th Dynasty."        
2467 BCE   Shepseskare Isi became the 4th ruler of the 5th Egyptian Dynasty.          
2460 BCE   Neferefre became the 5th ruler of the 5th Egyptian Dynasty.          
2453 BCE   Nyuserre Ini became the 6th ruler of the 5th Egyptian Dynasty.          
2448 BCE Usshar date for the birth of Shem, Ham and Japheth            
2422 BCE   Menkauhor Kaiu became the 7th ruler of the 5th Egyptian Dynasty.          
2414 BCE   Djedkare Isesi became the 8th ruler of the 5th Egyptian Dynasty.          
2400 BCE   Beginning of the 24th Century B.C.E.           
2375 BCE   Unas became the 9th ruler of the 5th Egyptian Dynasty.          
2353 BCE Usshar date for the death of Lamech, who lived 777 years. Gen.5:28-31            
2346 BCE Usshar date for the birth of Arphaxad            
2345 BCE   Teti founded the 6th Egyptian Dynasty. The 6th Dynasty had 7 rulers and ended in 2183 BCE.          
2349 BCE Usshar date for the death of Methuselah, who lived 969 years. Gen.5:25-27. Same year as the flood allegedly ooccurred.            
2349 BCE According the Bible timelines (see Ussher's), the Flood occurred (Gen.7,8 and 9). Jesus also believed in the Flood Mat 24:38-39 If you look at the dates for the rulers of Egypt through all the possible dynasties that existed during a wide date range before and after the Flood date, there is no break in the history of Egypt that would suggest a complete destruction of civilization. This would have been near the start of the 6th Dynasty.    - Unless you believe the Kings 6:1 should read "1480 years" not "480 years, which pushes it back 1000 years - just in time for the first dynasty to start. The Chinese's (and other nations) also had civilizations that carried on without noticing a flood. Also, salt water and pressure would have killed all vegetation. What did Noah's animals eat? Even if there was a Moses and he wrote Genesis (doubtful), this was 900 years before Moses supposedly existed. The writer would have been writing from oral history, which tends to exaggeration. This had to have been a local flood that was mythologized. There is no way animals were gathered from the 4 corners of the earth (marsupials in Australia, spiders of the rain forest, pandas in China, etc). Also, if you believe in a young earth, you had all those dinosaurs to deal with. There's no way 100 million plus animals, insects, arachnids  and birds were loaded onto a 450 ark "in the selfsame day" (Gen.7:13-14). How did he keep them from eating each other? How did he re-create some of the required habitates (like cave-dwelling arthopods)? How did he feed them (special diet and manpower)? What did they eat when they got off? Also, the moral ramifications of God drowning His children are horrific and insane. Also, where is the scientific data that all species migrated out from Turkey (where the ark landed)?  More: http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/faq-noahs-ark.html -  According to the Bible, at this time, "the whole world had one language and a common speech." (Gen.11:1). However, this is obviously not the case.      
2349 BCE This marks the end of the antediluvian period (before the flood) for Biblical literalist If the Flood really happened, the Egyptian and Chinese dynasties would have stopped here. The pyramids and Stonehenge would have been destroyed. Paleontology would show that all animals migrated out of the near east. This is not the case. See: http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/faq-noahs-ark.html Link      
2350 BCE   The southern states of Mesopotamia are united into one empire by Sargon, king of Akkas (a.k.a. Agade). He and his sons ruled for 150 years. http://www.crystalinks.com/meso.html          
2333 BCE   Userkare became the 2nd ruler of the 6th Egyptian Dynasty.          
2332 BCE   Pepi I Meryre became the 3rd ruler of the 6th Egyptian Dynasty.          
2311 BCE Ussher date for the birth of Salah.            
2300 BCE   Beginning of the 23rd Century B.C.E.           
2283 BCE   Merenre Nemtyemsaf I became the 4th ruler of the 6th Egyptian Dynasty.          
2281 BCE Ussher date for the birth of Eber.            
2278 BCE   Pepi II Neferkare became the 5th ruler of the 6th Egyptian Dynasty.          
2247 BCE Ussher date for the birth of Peleg.            
2242 BCE According to biblical timelines, The Tower of Babel existed very shortly after the Flood. Gen 10:25, 11:10-19. According to the Bible, God noticed that they had too much unity with one language - no telling what they might accomplish. They might actually finish that Tower and reach God. They had to be stopped for God's sake. So, He said "Let us go do an confound their language of all the earth." "Ur-Nammu (king of Ur) was a prodigious builder. The most impressive monument of his reign was the ziggurat at Ur.  One of the most famous ziggurats was built in the city of Babylon and gave rise to the story of the Tower of Babel." http://www.crystalinks.com/meso.html - However, he did not reign until around 2065 BCE. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ur-Nammu The Tower of Babel sounds like something right out of Greek mythology. And how it is that only a few years after the Flood that 8 people have created enough people to nation build - including the construction of cities and a giant tower?  According to fundamentalists, this is the genesis of the various races. So, God changes their language and their appearance. It just does not ring true. Ancient Egyptian, Sumerian and Chinese languages and even writing (cuneiform and hieroglyphic) were in existence long before the Bible says that the Earth only spoke one language.        
2218 BCE Ussher date for the birth of Nimrod.            
2217 BCE Ussher date for the birth of Reu.            
2200 BCE   Beginning of the 22nd Century B.C.E.           
2185 BCE Ussher date for the birth of Serug.            
2184 BCE   Merenre Nemtyemsaf II became the 6th ruler of the 6th Egyptian Dynasty.          
2184 BCE   Nitiqret became the 7th ruler of the 6th Egyptian Dynasty.          
2155 BCE Ussher date for the birth of Nahor.            
2126 BCE Ussher date for the birth of Terah.            
2100 BCE   Beginning of the 21st Century B.C.E.           
c.2000 BCE See: http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/ent/A0820825.html Gilgamesh epic, recorded in cuneiform script, is the first known such written legend. Gilgamesh had a Flood, a warning from God to build an ark and take animals, he's given dimensions for the boat, a dove release, and a rainbow and the ark was stranded on a mountain. Read the eleventh tablet here: http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/mesopotamian/gilgamesh/tab11.htm     Click here for on online English translation of the Epic of Gilgamesh.
2000 BCE Death of Noah In the 19th century CE, 7 tablets were unearthed containing the Babylonian myth of creation called Enuma Elish that dated from 1700 to 2000 BCE. Some have suggested that the similarities show evidence that the creation story was borrowed from Babylonia lore.     http://www.geocities.com/paulntobin/babylonian.html World Population about 27 Million   Link  
c. 2000 BCE   Middle Bronze Age (c.2000 - 1600 BCE) in Near East          
2000 BCE   Beginning of the 20th Century B.C.E.           
1996 BCE According Ussher timeline, Abraham was born - Gen. 11:26-32.   Gen. 11 claims that Abraham was born in Ur of the Chaldeans, which is an anachronism. The Chaldean empire did not exist until the reign of Nabopolassar in 625 BCE. This would be a common mistake if the person writing about Abraham was actually writing around the 5th century BCE.        
1991 BCE   Amenemhat I became the 1st ruler (of 8 rulers total) of the 12th dynasty in Egypt according to Manetho.   Wiki      
1921 BCE According Ussher timeline, Abraham was called by God in Gen. 11:26-32.   In Galatians 3:17, Paul tells us that from the establishment of God's covenant with Abraham until the giving of the Law on Mount Sinai, 430 years elapsed. That would put Moses on Mt. Sinai in 1491 from here. Link      
1971 BCE   Senusret I became 2nd Pharaoh of Egypt in the 12th dynasty. 1971 BCE to 1926 BCE          
1929 BCE   Amenemhet II became 3rd Pharaoh of Egypt in the 12th dynasty. 1929 BC to 1895 BC          
1897 BCE   Senusret II became 4th Pharaoh of Egypt in the 12th dynasty.1897 BC to 1878 BC          
1900 BCE   Beginning of the 19th Century B.C.E.           
1896 BCE According Ussher timeline, Isaac was born to Abraham - See Gen. 17:17.            
1890 BCE According the Bible timelines, Sodom and Gomorrah Destroyed            
1878 BCE   Senusret III became 5th Pharaoh of Egypt in the 12th dynasty.1878 – 1839 BC          
1860 BCE   Amenemhat III became 6th Pharaoh of Egypt in the 12th dynasty. 1860 BC to 1814 BC          
1837 BCE Ussher date for the birth of Jacob and Esau.            
1821 BCE According Ussher timeline, Abraham died - Gen. 25:7-10            
1815 BCE   Amenemhet IV became 7th Pharaoh of Egypt in the 12th dynasty.1815 – 1806 BC          
1806 BCE   Sobekneferu became 8th Pharaoh of Egypt in the 12th dynasty.1806 – 1802 BC          
1802 BCE   Sobekhotep (aka Sekhemre Khutawy) became 1st Pharaoh of Egypt in the 13th dynasty.1802 -  BC          
1804 BCE According Ussher timeline, Isaac meets with Abimelech, king of the Philistines in Gerar and then decides to live in Gerar - Gen. 26   "The Philistines, a group of migrants from the Aegean or eastern Mediterranean, had not established their settlements along the coastal plain of Canaan until sometime after 1200 BCE." In 1804 BCE, Gerar would have been a quite insignificant villiage - Not a nation with a king and an amy with commanders (Gen.21:32). However, by the late 8th and 7th centuries BCE, it had become a strong, heavily fortified Assyrian stronghold - an obvious landmark.  This give some clue as to when the stories of Genesis were actually written. From The Bible Unearthed by Finkelstein and Silberman, p. 37-38, copyright 2001.      
1800 BCE   Beginning of the 18th Century B.C.E.           
1792 BCE   Hammurabi (also transliterated Hammu-rapi or Khammurabi) was the sixth king of Babylon. Achieving the conquest of Sumer and Akkad, and ending the last Sumerian dynasty of Isin, (the first king of the Babylonian Empire). Hammurabi reigned over the Babylonian Empire from 1792 BC until his death in 1750 BC (dates highly uncertain). The Code of Hammurabi, dating from the same time, was an eight foot high stone monolith that was excavated in 1901 CE. It is considered a predecessor of Jewish and Islamic legal systems. See: date of 1155 BCE, regarding the sun god Shamash giving the code to Hammurabi.     Click here to see an online English translation of the Code of Hammurabi.
1717 BCE According to Ussher dates, Joseph, who had been sold into slavery, was summoned by Pharaoh to interpret his dreams and gains favor.   In Gen. 37:25, a caravan of camels come by and Joseph's brothers sell him into slavery. Some scholars believe that camels were not domesticated as beasts of burden until nearly a 1000 years later. This would indicate anachronism and a later date to the writing. However, I have not made up my mind on the strength of this argument. See: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/qnocamel.html and http://www.geocities.com/paulntobin/abraham.html. From The Bible Unearthed by Finkelstein and Silberman, p. 37, copyright 2001. See another rebuttal: http://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/1781     I need to research this further. It seems that there is evidence of wild camels around this time, but there is not evidence that they were domesticated for caravan travel. An example can be found here: http://nefertiti.iwebland.com/timelines/topics/exploration.htm. If they had camels, why would they use donkeys? See: http://nefertiti.iwebland.com/timelines/topics/means_of_transportation.htm
 BCE (Ussher's date) Story of Jacob peeling off bark from branches to make some of them striped. He put the striped branches in front of his cows when they drank. This resulted in them having similarly stripped and spotted offspring. Genesis 30:37-39. This was done because he had an agreement with Laban, who said he could have the striped and spotted cattle.   Obviously, observing stripes does not alter cow genetics. This story illustrates that these stories are probably a collection of folktales passed down for generations.        
1706 BCE Ussher's date for Jacob and family coming to Egypt, meeting Pharaoh and getting a place in Goshen. Ex.1:1 says that there were 70 people who entered Egypt.    By the time of the Exodus, there would be millions (perhaps as many as 3 million - see Numbers chapter 1, where we're told there was over 600,000 adult males - not including women, children and the tribe of Levi). That's a very short time for 70 people to make a lot of babies.         
1700 BCE   Beginning of the 17th Century B.C.E.           
1689 BCE Ussher date for the death of Jacob.            
1635 BCE Ussher date for the death of Joseph.            
1620 BCE   Khyan became Pharaoh in the Hyksos Egyptian dynasty 1620 - 1580 BCE.          
1600 BCE According to Ussher dates, the Israelites are enslaved by Egypt There is no Egyptian history that mentions a mass enslavement of the Israelites. If there were 3 million Israelites in the Exodus, it would be in their history. Note: The Bible never names an Egyptian king (Pharaoh) for the Exodus by name. One would think that if the writer knew the name for such a great event, it would be mentioned.  Later in the recorded history, Egyptian kings are named like Shishak (see 940 BCE), who most believe to be Sheshonq I (1 Kings 11:40; 2 King 2:1-24). Also, Necho (Necho II see 610 - 595 BCE) and 2 Kings 23:31; 2 Chronicles 36:1-4. Wiki      
c. 1600 BCE   Late Bronze Age (c. 1600 - 1200 BCE) in Near East          
1600 BCE   Beginning of the 16th Century B.C.E.           
1595 BCE       The Hittites conquer Babylon.      
1580 BCE   Apepi I becomes the 4th ruler in the Hyksos Egyptian dynasty. He ruled for 40 years.          
1571 BCE According Ussher timeline, Moses is born. According to tradition, he wrote the first 5 books of the Bible. Moses was supposedly raised in "Pharaoh's Court", however, he never gives us the name of the Pharaoh or the daughter who raised him (Ex.2) The story of Moses being placed in a basket on the bank of the Nile to be found by Pharaoh's daughter is similar to the mythical story of Romulus and Remus (founders of Rome), who were also to be killed after birth but saved by being placed in a river. Link      
1570 c. BCE One theory is that the Hyksos were the Edomites, and the stories of the Exodus merged into Jewish culture as a shared memory.  The conquest to expell the Hyksos Pharaohs (meaning "foreign rulers") from Egypt began. They were an ethnically mixed group of Southwest Asiatic or Semitic people who appeared in the eastern Nile Delta during the Second Intermediate Period. They ruled Lower and Middle Egypt for over 100 years. They were expelled from Egypt through a series of wars by Theban rulers.  Some have wondered if this expulsion was the Exodus. However, if we can place the date of Solomon's rule via Egyptian and Assyrian sources to pin point it at 970 BCE, and the temple was built in the fourth year of his reign and 480 years after the Exodus, then the Exodus happened in 1440 BCE. It's over 100 years off. Also, the Hyksos were rulers - not slaves. Some believe that the Hyksos were the Edomites - see: http://nabataea.net/edomch1.html      
1562 BCE The latest consensus for the dating of the destruction of Jericho's walls (+/- 38 years). "Scholars who link these walls to the biblical account must explain how the Israelites arrived around 1550 BCE but settled four centuries later and devise a new biblical chronology that corresponds."     Wiki     Link
1550 BCE   Apepi II becomes Pharaoh in the Hyksos Egyptian dynasty. 1550 BC to 1540 BC          
1550 BCE   Ahmose I becomes the 1st Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. 1550 BC to 1525 BC During Ahmose reign, the Hyksos were completely expelled from Egypt.        
1540 BCE   Khamudi becomes Pharaoh in the Hyksos Egyptian dynasty. 1540 BC to 1534 BC          
1526 BCE   Amenhotep I becomes the 2nd Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. 1526 BC to 1506 BC          
1505 BCE   Thutmose I becomes the 3rd Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. 1505 BC to 1492 BC          
1500 BCE   Beginning of the 15th Century B.C.E.           
1493 BCE   Thutmose II became the 4th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. 1493 BC to 1479 BC          
1491 BCE The Exodus: According Ussher timeline (see also 1440). Note that Num. 1:46 states that there were over 600,000 military aged men in the Exodus. If we add in the women and children, that number easily doubles or triples. With the world population at only about 37 million at this time, a million people is a lot of people. A 37th of the world population wondering around in the desert should get noticed in history. Ex.14:30 claims that the people of Philistia heard about the crossing, and they were anguished. However, modern archaeology has determined that Philistia was established by the "Sea People" during the reign of Rameses III of the 20th Dynasty c. 1180 - 1150 BCE. Therefore, this is an anachronism.  Christians say that the reason there is nothing in Egyptian history regarding the exodus is that Egypt never recorded any of their defeats. However, I cannot imagine the first born of every family dying and it not having a major impact on their literature. Though the Israelites may have been a nomadic people in Canaan, there is no evidence that they occupied Egypt during this time.       Martin Noth, an Old Testament scholar, noted that for that total number to be reached, each Israelite mother and father would have had to have had 40 male children plus female children to marry off to other people's sons. - http://religion.ucumberlands.edu/hebrewbible/hbnotes/plaguesnotes.htm
1491 BCE Usshers date for Lev. 26:19 "I will break down your stubborn pride and make the sky above you like iron and the ground beneath you like bronze."   Oops, the iron age doesn't start for nearly 300 more years. See 3874 BCE too. There are many references to iron during this story time. Link      
1490 BCE Ussher date for the completion of the Tabernacle.            
1479 BCE   Hatshepsut became the 5th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. 1479 BC to 1458 BC          
1470 BCE   A massive volcanic eruption at Thera destroys the Minoan civilization at Crete. This caused 160 ft waves and flooding in Egypt.          
1458 BCE   Thutmose III became the 6th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. 1479 BC to 1425 BC          
1453 BCE Wondering in Kadesh-barnia. Many scholars estimate that if Num.1:45 is true (also Ex.12:37), there were probably over 3 million Israelites in the Exodus (600,000 military aged men (25 years and older), 600,000 similar aged women, 2,000,000 people under the age of 25, plus the tribe of Levi). Gen. 47:27 says that they "multiplied excedingly". This means large families with lots of kids. The Hebrews were camped around Kadesh-barnea for most of the 40 years prior to entering Canaan. How did millions of people live, die, herd animals, etc in this area for nearly 40 years and not leave any sign of their stay? Reminder: This is Late Bronze Age. The Bronze Age extended from 3150 - 1200 BCE. Rome reached 1 million people in 133 BCE. This means that Moses had 3 times the population of Rome settled in an area for 40 years. Yet, there has never been any archeological proof for this. Wiki Click here to see a traditional map of the Exodus wondering path.   The reason that I believe the author of this part of the Bible tells us about such a large number of people is to fullfill the prophecy that was established earlier to Abraham and Jacob. "GENESIS 46:2 Then God spoke to Israel in the visions of the night, and said, "Jacob, Jacob!" And he said, "Here I am." 3 So He said, "I am God, the God of your father; do not fear to go down to Egypt, for I will make of you a great nation there." - Gen.47:27, "Israel lived in the land of Egypt, in the land of Goshen; and they got themselves possessions therein, and were fruitful, and multiplied exceedingly." 
1452 BCE Usshers date for Balaam and the talking donkey (Num 22). As the story goes, an invisible Angel blocks Balaam's path. The donkey can see the Angel but Balaam cannot.  Three times the donkey refuses to walk the path of the angel, crushing Balaam's foot against a wall once. Balaam beats the donkey each time. Then, the angel casts a magic spell on the donkey and lets it talk. It prompty scolds Balaam for the bad treatment. Balaam holds a conversation like it was the most normal thing on earth.   This story leaves me with the impression of mythology similar to other mythical stories that survive oral tradition, handed down like fairy tales. Of course, it also gives rise to every school boy getting to say, "Balaam beat his ass."        
1452 BCE Ussher's date for the slaughter of the Midianites under the leadership of Moses (Num.31), who tells the Israelite army to commit genocide, except for the virgins (read - very, very young girls).   The virgins will be given out as gifts to the soldiers and priests. There were 32,000 young girls who were ripped from their homes, had their parents and siblings killed, all of their possessions taken and then forced into sexual relations with the soldiers and priests. All of this at the supposed command of God.

It strikes me as ironic that Christians today so quickly find Islam as evil, and cannot believe that anyone would practice a religion that would kill others in the name of God; yet, their religon is founded on just this. The only reason we're told that Joshua was to wipe out the inhapitants was because they were pagans. In other words, they had a different religion. They were to be wiped out lest their pagan ideas influence the Hebrews. Not to mention the fact that here- God ordains forcing very young girls into sexual relationships. 
Link      
1451 BCE Ussher's date for the death of Moses in the plains of Moab on Mt. Nebo. This was a busy year to say the least. Deut.34:1 The Conquest of Canaan, according to Ussher, starts 40 years from the Exodus.     Click here to see a map showing Mt. Nebo      
1451 BCE Ussher's date for Joshua leading the Hebrews west through the Jordan river. We're told that God stopped the Jordan from flowing so they could cross (Josh.4:7).     During this story, Joshua has 12 stones removed from the river bottom and stacked near where the people crossed. The writer then tells us "And they are there to this day." This hints that the story was written much later than the event.        
1451 BCE Ussher's date for the Walls of Jericho falling down and Joshua capturing the city. (Joshua 6). Except for a woman who spied for Joshua, the story claims complete genocide for the city - including their animals. No one was left alive.   In the early and late Bronze Age, Jericho was an insignificant, poor, unfortified city (the walls were not used for fortification). In fact, none of Canaan was really fortified. They were all vassals of Egypt and relied on the Pharaoahs for protection. There is no archaeological signs of destruction of Jericho during this time. It is true that Jericho had walls (but not walls built for fortification). In fact, archaeologist have dated the earliest walls build at around 8000 BCE. These were re-built about 17 times. There may have been an earthquake that destroyed the walls at some time in history which survived oral tradition, and this story was later woven into the Joshua account. Link Click to see Map of location of Jericho.    
1451 BCE Ussher's date for Joshua capturing and burning the city of Ai with 30 thousand Hebrew soldiers (Joshua 8). We are again told of complete genocide, leaving "neither suvivors nor fugitives."   Most scholars have identified Ai as et Tell (14 Km from Jericho), which causes a problem. Ai was in ruins during the late Bronze age and was not inhabited. Thus, biblical scholars must either re-date the Exodus much later or decide that Ai was at another location. See: http://www.bga.nl/en/articles/ai.html Link     "Between 1933 and 1935, the French-trained Jewish Palestinian archaeologist Judith Marquet-Krause carried out a large-scale excavation at et-Tell and found extensive remains of a huge Early Bronze Age city, dated over a millennium before the collapse of the Late Bronze Canaan. Not a single pottery sherd or any other indication of settlement there in the Late Bronze Age was recovered." - Finklestien and Silberman, The Bible Unearthed, p. 82.
1451 BCE Ussher's date for the Hebrews forcing the Gibeonites to be their woodcutters and water carriers. The writer of Joshua 9:26 goes on to say "And that is what they are to this day."   I need to research this further, but the phrase "And that is what they are to this day" is a hint as to when this was written. In 1957 CE, James Pritchard excavated Gibeon and found a complex water system and the famed "Pool of Gibeon". It seems that the water system was created in the 12th century. It would have been well well embedded in the memories of a writer during the 7th - 9th centuries.  The fact that the Gibeonites were left alive hint that this may have been written when the Hebrews and the Gibeonites were allies. http://www.bibleplaces.com/gibeon.htm Click here to see a map showing Gibeah   The city of El-Jib has been identified as ancient Gibeon, which is only 8 miles north of Jerusalem. See 1956 CE, excavation by Pritchard.
1451 BCE Ussher's date: Joshua fights the Amorites and God makes the sun and the moon stand still (Joshua 10). See: http://www.theskepticalreview.com/Miller/speculation1.html   1. It's obvious that the writer has a geocentric view of earth. If this has been written after Copernicus (see 1514 CE), perhaps it would have been heliocentric, but they didn't understand such things yet. To try and say that the author understood that the earth rotated around the sun is silly.  2. If daylight was extended here, it was extended worldwide. No such report exists from other cultures of a long day or night at this time.        
1451 BCE Ussher's date for Joshua battling the city of Makkedah and the killing of 5 kings (kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish and Eglon) he had trapped in a cave at Makkedah (Josh.10:16-28). The Bible says that no survives were left in the city (again, complete genocide) and the king was killed too.  Then the 5 kings were hung.   The location of Makkedah is in doubt.        
1451 BCE Ussher's date for Joshua battling the city of Libnah  (Josh.10:29). The Bible says that no survives (again, complete genocide) were left in the city and the king was killed too.     Linbah's location has not been identified with certainty. It may be Tell es-Safi or Tell Bornat. Libnah is mentioned as having revolted from Judah under Jehoram (r.849 - 842 BCE) see 2 Kings 8:22; 2Chron.21:10.        
1451 BCE Ussher's date for Joshua battling the city of Lachish and Gezer  (Josh.10:31). The Bible says that no survives were left. Once again, complete genocide for both cities.   Lachish is mentioned in the Amarna Letters. It was also the 2nd most important city under Rehoboam, king of Judah, in 701 BCE (which, my guess, may be why it gets mentioned here.        
1451 BCE Ussher's date for Joshua battling the city of Eglon  (Josh.10:34). The Bible says that no survives were left. Once again, complete genocide for the entire city.            
1451 BCE Ussher's date for Joshua battling the city of Hebron  (Josh.10:34). The Bible says that no survives were left. Once again, complete genocide for the entire city. Also, they killed the king again. I'm not sure why, as the king of Hebron was killed in Josh. 10:22-26. I guess it was the new king.            
1451 BCE Ussher's date for Joshua battling the city of Debir  (Josh.10:38). The Bible says that no survives were left. Once again, complete genocide for the entire city.            
1451 BCE Ussher's date for the compaign to conquer the area of Canaan completes. We are told that Joshua "totally destroyed all who breathed" (Josh.10:40). We are specifically told that it was complete genocide for everyone from Kadesh Barnea to Gaza and from the whole region of Goshen to Gibeon. Not one person was left alive (except the Gibeonites and the woman who betrayed her city).   Where is this Goshen?  Surely, the author does not mean the Goshen in the Fertile Crescent?        
1450 BCE Ussher's date for Joshua 11 - in which, Joshua defeats the northern kings, including: Kings of Hazor (Jabin, King of Hazor - Josh.11:1), Madon, Shimron, Acshaph, Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Jebusites, Hivites, the northern kings who were in the mountains, in the Arabah south of Kinnereth, in the western foothills and in Naphoth Dor. According to the Bible, Joshua killed every living person in all of those lands. See Josh 11:12-15. He took their animals and killed every person in every city.   If this were true, it would stick out in historical records like a sore thumb. There would be evidence of mass graves and Egyptian records of pleas of help from these vassal cities noting how entire cities had suffered complete genocide.        
1440 BCE This is the date of the Exodus if 1 Kings 6:1 is to be taken literally. It says that the Exodus occurred 480 years before the construction of the Temple that started in the 4th year of Solomon's reign. We know the date of Solomon due to a military victory over Solomon's son, Rehoboam, by Sheshonq I. This happened about 5 years after Solomon died. Sheshonq I recorded his victory details on the wall at the Temple of Amun at Thebes, mentioning Solomon by name. See also Ussher's date of 1491.  There are several ways to arrive at the date of the Exodus. Since there are no external witnesses to 3 million Hebrew slaves leaving Egypt, we must look at city names and people that are mention and then look at archaeology. This method gives us a different date than the Bible. The Bible also gives conflicting accounts. See: http://theskepticalreview.com/jftill/egypt/howlong.html Exodus 1:11 says that the Hebrew people were slaves in Egypt and were forced to build the cities of Pithom and Rameses for Pharaoh. However, Rameses hadn't even started his reign yet. See 1292 and 1279.        
1427 BCE   Amenhotep II became the 7th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. 1427 BC to 1401 BC or 1427–1397 BC          
1405 BCE Ussher's date for Othniel becomes the first Judge after the death of Joshua.   He became Judge after defeating the city of Debir, for which he was rewarded with the daughter of Caleb.        
1401 BCE   Thutmose IV became the 8th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. 1401 BC – 1391 BC or 1397 BC – 1388 BC          
1400 BCE If literalist agree that the Exodus must happen in 1440, Joshua's conquest would have started in this year, which is only 30 years from the richly documented Canaanite history in the Amarna Letters. The Letters details city-state "mayors" being in charge of Canaanite cities, all of whom are vassals of Egypt.            
1400 BCE   Beginning of the 14th Century B.C.E.           
1388 BCE   Amenhotep III became the 9th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. 1388 BC – 1351 BC In 1887, the Amarna Letters were found east of the Nile. There were over 300 cuneiform tablets. Many described Canaan in the Late Bronze Age. It revealed that Egypt controlled Canaan. The kings of Canaan paid tribute to and expected help from Egypt. Amenhotep III received a letter from the mayor of Megiddo.       When the Pharaohs addressed heads of what they called "city-states" in Canaan in the Amarna Letters, they referred to them as "mayors." All of these mayors were considered vassals of Egypt.
1372 BCE Joshua died at 110 years old (Ussher date)            
c. 1370 BCE   Biridiya (mayor of Megiddo) sent a letter to Amenhotep III. He tells the Pharaoh that "Labaya  has waged war against me." He claims that the Pharaoh needs to resque him or Labaya will capture Megiddo. He then asks the king for 100 men to defend the city.

This was the earliest Amarna letter.
We know this because of the Amarna Letters found in 1887. The fact that 100 men sent to Megiddo could save it from being captured shows that the cities of Canaan were not large nations. Megiddo was probable the largest of all the Canaanite cites, and it could be defended by 100 men. This also gives clue as to when the Pentateuch was written. The writer of the Pentateuch viewed Megiddo as a large nation. It was not. Also, Joshua could not have attacked Megiddo withou having to deal with the Egyptians. This was never mentioned in the story. See the Amarna stone here that speaks of Megiddo:       
1352 BCE   Akhenaten (aka Amenhotep IV) became the 10th Pharaoh of Egypt in the 18th dynasty. His wife was the famed Nefertiti (made famous by her exquisitely painted bust in the Altes Museum of Berlin).

The majority of the Amarna Letters date from this time frame.
The Amarna Letter (cuneiform tablet) from Lachish to Egypt was addressed to Pharaoh Akhenaten (Lachish was mentioned as being destroyed by Joshua - see 1451 BCE). The letter was a request for sending a few weapons (6 bows, 3 daggers and 3 swords). There is no indication in the letter that Lachish is under Hebrew controll. In fact, none of the many letters from Canaanite rulers indicate this. Link      
1343 BCE Ussher's date for the Death of Othniel, the first Judge of Israel.            
1334 BCE   Smenkhkare became the 11th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. 1334–1333 BC          
1333 BCE   Tutankhamun became the 12th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. 1333 BC – 1324 BC He is famous because his tomb was found nearly completely intact - not because of his political success.        
1325 BCE Ussher's date for Ehud to become 2nd judge of Israel after he defeats Eglon, king of Moab, who had placed the Israelites under his thumb for 18 years. During the battle, the Israelite army is said to have killed 10,000 men and "not a man escaped." Jud.3:29            
1324 BCE   Ay became the 13th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. 1324–1320 BC or 1327–1323 BC          
1320 BCE   Horemheb became the 14th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. 1320 BC to 1292 BC          
1305 BCE Ussher's date for the death of Ehud, the 2nd judge of Israel. Jud. 4:1 - At his death, the Isrealites became oppressed by Jabin, king of Hazor, for 20 years.   This is odd because Joshua killed King Jabin - wiping out every person in Hazor 146 year earlier. This is ether a popular name for Hazor kings or echoing oral history. Also note that Jabin was able to conquer the Israelites because his had iron chariots.        
1300 BCE   Beginning of the 13th Century B.C.E.           
1292 BCE   Ramesses I founded the 19th dynasty.  1292 BC to 1290 BC or 1295 BC to 1294 BC          
1290 BCE   Seti I, son of Ramesses I, became Pharaoh of Egypt (19th dynasty). In his first year, he led his armies through the "Ways of Horus" which is a system of military forts (each having its own well) that protect the passage between Egypt, through the Sinai peninsula, and Canaan. If 3 million Israelites left Egypt into the Sinai peninsula, they would have encountered this Egyptian military defense. Christians claim that the "Ways of Horus" was in the same direction as the Philistinesl  (which the story specifically tells us they avoided the direction of the Philistines); however, the Philistines did not settle the area until late in the reign of Ramesses III (1183 - 1152). Seti Philiestines   A relief of Seti I (1306-1290) at Karnak shows him crossing a fortified bridge over a reed-lined waterway teeming with crocodiles. The inscription calls the waterway ta denat "the dividing waters" (Gardiner 1920:104 ),about which more below. SWP (1975:548) identify "the dividing waters" with the "Ways of Horus," "Shur of Egypt" and their "Eastern Canal." Oren and Shereshevsi (1989:7) suggest that the relief "probably commemorated the establishment of the military complex along the 'Ways of Horus' and perhaps also the excavation of the sweetwater canal on the edge of the Nile Delta."  http://www.angelfire.com/ms/ancecon/
1285 BCE Ussher's date for the beginning of Deborah's reign as the 3rd Judge of Isreal.            
1279 BCE This is the year that the city that would later be called "Pi-Ramesses" was built. Exodus 1: 11 "So they put slave masters over them to oppress them with forced labor, and they built Pithom and Rameses as store cities for Pharaoh." (NIV).  This puts the city being built well after the time of the Exodus. Ramses II, the Great, becomes Pharaoh of Egypt. He reigned until his death in 1213 BCE (19th dynasty). During his reign, Ramses II changed the name of the city of Avaris to Pi-Ramesses. This is believed to be the city intended in Exodus 1: 11. However, it was not called Rameses when it was built. This supports that the text was written much later than the city was built. Probably so many years past that the true author did not realize its original name. Wiki      
1252 BCE Ussher's date for the end of of Deborah's reign as Judge of Israel.            
1245 BCE Ussher's date for the beginning of Gideon's reign as Judge of Israel.            
1236 BCE Ussher's date for  the beginning of Abimelech's reign as Judge of Israel and the end of Gideon's.            
1233 BCE Ussher's date for the beginning of Tola's reign as Judge of Israel and the end of Abimelech's.            
1213 BCE   Merneptah becomes the 4th Pharaoh of the 19th dynasty. 1213 to 1203 BC          
1210 BCE Ussher's date for the beginning of Jair's reign as Judge of Israel and the end of Tola's.            
1207 BCE "A Victory stele erected by Pharaoh Merneptah in 1207 BCE mentioned a great victory over a people named Israel."   The inscription describes how the people called Israel were wiped out in battle in Canaan to the point that their seed was no more. There is no mention of Israelites living in Egypt.     From The Bible Unearthed by Finkelstein and Silberman, p. 18, copyright 2001.  
1203 BCE   Amenmesse becomes the 5th Pharaoh of the 19th dynasty. 1203 BC to 1200 BC          
1200 BCE Archaeologist (from 1967 CE to today) have found evidence of many (some 250) small communities in the highlands from the Judean hills in the south to the hills of Samaria in the north. These communities had between 50 adults to a few hundred, and are believed to be the first Israelites. In studying the highland people, archaeologist find no pig bones. There were pig bones discovered with other non-Hebrew cities of the time (like the the Philistines who ate a lot of pig). There is no sign of violent invasion like is attributed to Joshua. It appears that the Canaanites lived in the lowlands and the Israelites lived in the highlands during this time. It appears that the Isrealites were previously Canaanites, who began to separate themselves culturally.     From The Bible Unearthed by Finkelstein and Silberman, p. 107, copyright 2001.  
1200 BCE   Seti II becomes the 6th Pharaoh of the 19th dynasty. 1200 BC - 1194 BC          
c.1200 BCE There are several stories of iron use in the alleged writings of Moses and Joshua that make claim to iron use (iron chariots, for example). There was even an iron worker mentioned during the time of Adam.These are anachronisms, and show that the writings were probably written well after the start of the iron age - during a time when iron had been so common for so long that the author did not think about a time when it did not exist. Beginning of the Iron Age in the Near East (1200 - 586 BCE)          
1200 BCE   BEGINNING OF IRON AGE I IN NEAR EAST
Beginning of 12th Century B.C.E.
         
1188 BCE Ussher's date for the beginning of Jephthah's reign as Judge of Israel and the end of Jair's            
1186 BCE   Setnakhte becomes the first king of the 20th dynasty in Egypt.          
1183 BCE   Ramesses III becomes 2nd king of  the 20th dynasty in Egypt.          
1182 BCE Ussher's date for the beginning of Ibzan's reign as Judge of Israel and the end of Jephthah's.            
1178 BCE   A total eclipse of the Sun was visible from the Greek island of Ithaca on April 16th          
1175 BCE Ussher's date for the beginning of Elon's reign as Judge of Israel and the end of Ibzan's.            
1165 BCE Ussher's date for the beginning of Abdon's reign as Judge of Israel and the end of Elon's.            
1157 BCE Ussher's date for the beginning of Samson's reign as Judge of Israel and the end of Abdon's.   Specifically, Robert Price points to sun god, Shamash of Babylon, who was the god of Justice and judge of gods and men (Samson was also a judge). Like the sun, he burns the crops of the Philistines (Jud.15:4-5), his hair is braided into 7 locks like the rays of the sun, and when they are cut off he is both blinded and weakened. The Babylonian King Hammurabi received his code from Shamash c. 1792.     Robert Price, in this book, The incredible Shrinking Son of Man, points out that Samson was a humanized version of one of many sun god mythologies (Samson means "the sun"). 
c. 1150 BCE   Trojan War (in Greek Mythology) against the city of Troy in Asia Minor by the Achaeans. The mythical war (that may or may not have been storied from an actual battle) was preceded by the kidnapping of Helen of Sparta by Paris of Troy. At one time, ancient Greeks believed this war to be a real war and Troy a real city. We now know both are not. This includes the tale of pushing the Trojan Horse into the city of Troy. Some historians believe there may be some historical core to some of the stories, but concrete associations continue elusive. Wiki      
1152 BCE   Ramesses IV becomes 3rd king of the 20th dynasty in Egypt.          
1117 BCE Ussher's date for the beginning of Samuel's reign as Judge of Israel and the end of Samson's.            
1100 BCE   Beginning of the 11th Century B.C.E.           
1095 BCE According the Bible timelines, Samson dies and Saul is appointed by Samuel as King of Israel. These is no record of Saul being king of Israel outside of the Bible.   This is Isreal's first king. However, back in Gen.36:31, the writer remarks of the kings of Edom - "Now these are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the sons of Israel." Yet, back in Genesis, there was no thought of a King ruling over the Israelites. This seems to be a hint as to when Genesis was written - much later in history - and certainly not by Moses.        
1095 BCE 1 Sam 11:8, "When Saul mustered them at Bezek, the men of Israel numbered three hundred thousand and the men of Judah thirty thousand."   If there were 330,000 military-aged men, there would be an equal number of women and at least that many children and older people. This would make them a nation of over a million people - Twice as large as the Roman Empire. This is most likely an exaggeration.        
1056 BCE Ussher's date for the death of King Saul.            
1055 BCE Ish-Bosheth, Saul's son, became king for 2 years until David overthrew him.            
1055 BCE Ussher's date: David becomes king of Israel.            
1017 BCE Ussher's date: 1 Chron. 21 says that God killed 70,000 innocent people because David ordered a census of the people.            
1012 BCE According to Ussher, The Temple in Jerusalem (Solomon's Temple) was founded.            
1000 BCE   Beginning of the 10th Century BCE   World Population about 50 million.      
975 BCE In 2005 CE, Archaeologiest Dr. Ron E. Tappy discovered the oldest full Hebrew alphabet at Tel Zayit. It dated to the late 10th century. Click here to see a map of Tel Zayit. The Hebrews developed their writing from the Phoenicians. Link # 1   Link # 2  
970 BCE Ussher's date: David dies and Solomon becomes king of Israel. These is no record of Solomon's fantastic kingdom or Temple- outside of the Bible. Archeologist have searched and searched for proof. He seems to have existed, but with a kingdom of much lesser scale.   Ussher puts this date earlier at 1015 BCE. With the finding at the temple of Amun at Karnak (see 940 BCE), it seems it was later as shown here.

I Kings 6:1 states that the Exodus took place 480 years before the construction of the Temple that started in the 4th year of Solomon's reign.
       
c. 940 BCE Pharaoh Shishak (mentioned in 1 Kings 14:25 as having come up against Jerusalem to demand tribute during the fifth year of the reign of Solomon's son) was identified as Sheshonq I (aka Shoshenq) of the Twenty-second Dynasty, who ruled from 945 to 924 BCE. He left an account of his campaign on a wall in the temple of Amun at Karnak, in Upper Egypt.    From The Bible Unearthed by Finkelstein and Silberman, p. 18, copyright 2001. Read more about this Pharaoh here:       
931 BCE Solomon dies and Rehoboam becomes king of Judah.            
900 BCE   Beginning of the 9th Century BCE - Beginning of Iron Age II 900 - 586          
896 BCE By Christian timelines, Elijah is taken up to heaven in a firey chariot (2 Kings 2:1-24)             
853 BCE From Assyrian data, it can be shown that 853 B.C. witnessed the battle of Qarqar and the death of Ahab, and that 841 B.C. saw Jehu as king of Israel in place of Joram. http://www-personal.buseco.monash.edu.au/~hyndman/bible/times/chap2.htm     Ussher date      
850 BCE In 1868 CE, the Moabite Stone was found in Dhiban, Jordan. It speaks of things that happened around 850 BCE.      1. How Moab was conquered by Omri, King of Israel, as the result of the anger of the god Chemosh. Mesha's victories over Omri's son (not mentioned by name), over the men of Gad at Ataroth, and at Nebo and Jehaz;
   2. His public buildings, restoring the fortifications of his strong places and building a palace and reservoirs for water; and
   3. His wars against the Horonaim.
The Moabite Stone (a.k.a. the Mesha Stele) describes…      
850 BCE   Traditional dates for Homer's epic poems: The Iliad and The Odyssey.  Whether Troy and Greece actually has an epic battle is unsure. If so, it was a battle that occurred about 500 years before Homer. Whether Homer originated all of the ideas in the Iliad and The Odyssey is debatable. He may have compiled oral records of century old stories. In fact, nothing concrete is really known of Homer. His work is the beginning of Westarn classical liturature. Click here to see an online English translation of the works of Homer      
800 BCE   Beginning of the 8th Century BCE          
780 BCE   On June 4, 780 BC a solar eclipse was recorded in China.          
753 BCE   Traditional date for the founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus (Rome, named from Romulus, who, as the story goes, killed Remus in a argument. The story of Romulus and Remus is filled with mythology including Romulus ascending at death and then later appearing to witnesses translated to a higher state. Wiki      
750 BCE       World Population about 60 Million.      
763 BCE   A solar eclipse of 16 June 763 BC mentioned in an Assyrian text is important for the Chronology of the Ancient Orient.          
745 BCE See (2 Kings 15:29; 16:5-9; 1 Chronicles 5:6, 26) Tiglat-pileser III is king of Assyria. According to Finkelstein & Silberman, The Bible Unearthed, p.68, "Archaeological investigations indicate that Edom reached statehood only under Assyrian auspices in the seventh century BCE." If this is true, it makes Moses references to Edomite kings anachronisms. However, they gave no references to why they believe this is true. I found that 8th century Edomite kings are listed in Assyrian cuneform. However, I don't see why people of Edom could not have existed prior. That said, I doubt they were around in 1500 BCE. Kaus-malaka becomes king of Edom according to Assyrian cuneiform.   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edom  
739 BCE Isaiah begins to prophesy (Ussher date).            
732 BCE Ahaz is king of Judah from 732 - 716 BCE (2 Kings 16).  He's described as a wicked kin who introduced many pagan and idolatrous customs. He died at age of 35, after reigning 16 yrs, and was succeeded by his son Hezekiah. When Ahaz fears being attacked by the alliance of Syria and Israel, Isaiah prophecies that a young woman would have a son, and before that child knew the difference between good and evil, these two enemies would be vanquished by Assyria.    See my Article on the Virgin Birth at: http://www.TalkingTimeline.com/pdf/Part_2_Why Christianity is Unbelievable_Vigin Birth.pdf        
721 BCE According the Bible timelines, The 10 tribes of Israel are taken captive to Assyria.  The southern kingdom of Judah still stands.            
700 BCE     The Persians would later conquer Babylon. Achaemenes (Hakaimanish) is first chieftain of the Persians.      
700 BCE   Beginning of the 7th Century BCE          
653 BCE   The Medes came under the domination of the Scythians lasting twenty-eight years (under Madius the Scythian, 653-625 BC).    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_empire#The_rise_and_fall_of_empires_in_Persia     Teispes, son of Achaemenes, seems to have led the nomadic Persians to settle in southern Iran.      
628 BCE Jeremiah is called to be a prophet. He wrote from Jerusalem and saw the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple in  589 (Jer. 37:4,5).    Some believe that Jeremiah redacted Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, the books of Samuel and the Books of Kings.        
625 BCE   Nabopolassar (Nabu-apal-usur) was the first king of the Chaldean Empire, better known as Babylon after defeating the Assyrians. He ruled until 605, when his son, Nebuchadnezzar took over. This is the start of the neo-Babylonian empire - so called to distinguish it from the past Empire under Hammurapi. Hvakhshathra or Cyaxares (r. 625 - 585 BC) became king of Media (Iran).      
c. 622 BCE Ussher date: Josiah, king of Judah, discovers the "Book of the Law" during temple renovations. Many scholars believe that this may have been the book of Deuteronomy, which was not so much discovered as written during this time - at least the first redaction.   It could have been written to serve the territorial ambitions of Josiah and to preserve the culture and history in an idealized manner.        
612 BCE   Nabopolassar and Cyaxares the Mede team up to overthrow the Assyrian Empire and destroyed Nineveh. After this victory, the Medes conquered Northern Mesopotamia, Armenia and some important parts of Asia Minor especially Lydia.    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyaxares        
610 BCE Josiah, king of Judah, attempts to help the Babylonians by blocking Necho II advance at Megiddo. Josiah is killed in the battle.   He is mentioned in 2 Kings 23:29, 2 Chronicles 35:20-24.  Notice how biblical history is beginning to get more detailed. Specific names are mentioned and historical records can verify events. This is one clue as to when the first 5 books of the Bible were written. Necho II (more accurately, Nekau II) was a king of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (610 - 595 BC), and the son of Psammetichus I.      
609 BCE Jehoiakim begins reign as King of Judah and reigns until 598 BCE Daniel 1:1-2 mistakenly states that Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem in the 3rd year of his reign (606 BCE). I need to study this further (regarding accession year)     Necho II deposed Jehoahaz and placed Jehoiakim in his stead.   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Necho_II  
605 BCE   Nebuchadrezzar becomes king of Babylon and reigns until 562 This is the head of gold in Daniel's prophecy (Dan.2:32-33). The first of four kingdoms that will rise up to control the world. Nebuchadrezzar marries the daughter of Cyaxares at some point.      
604 BCE       Traditional (Chinese) date for the birth of Lao-tzu, founder of Taoism. However, some believe it was as late as the 4th century.   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lao-tzu  
 600 BCE   Late Iron Age for Near East          
600 BCE   Beginning of the 6th Century BCE          
598 BCE Jehoiachin, son of Jehoiakim, begins to reign as King of Judah at the age of 8 (or 18). After reigning for three months and ten days, he was removed from office by the Babylonians, and Zedekiah was placed as king in Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 36:9).    "Jeconiah, with his household, many of the rulers of Judah, and many craftsmen, were taken captive to Babylon. Cuneiform records dated to 592 BC mention Jeconiah ("Ia-'-ú-kinu") and his five sons as recipients of food rations in Babylon. He was still called king while in captivity.

In the thirty-seventh year of his captivity (562 BC), he was removed from prison by Amel-Marduk, King of Babylon." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jehoiachin
       
586 BCE   Beginning of the Persian (or Babylonian/Persion or Late Iron) Age (586 - 332 BCE)          
586 BCE Judah falls to Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. The temple is destroyed. Jews are exiled to Babylon.             
c. 575 BCE     The dates for his birth and death range about 10 years. He was born between 580 and 572 BC and died between 500 and 490 BC. Birth of Pythagoras of Samos, of the famed Pythagorean theorem.      
570 BCE              
562 BCE According to the Book of Kings, Amel-Marduk pardoned and released Jehoiachin, king of Judah, who had been a prisoner in Babylon for thirty-seven years. Allegedly because Amel-Marduk tried to modify his father's policies, he was murdered by Nergal-sharezer (Neriglissar), his brother-in-law, who succeeded him. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amel-Marduk Amel-Marduk (d. 560 BC), called Evil-merodach in the Hebrew Bible, was the son and successor of Nebuchadrezzar, king of Babylon. He seems to have reigned only two years (562 - 560 BC).          
559 BCE     See 653 BCE.  In 559, the Persians were still paying tribute to the Medes (ruled by Astyages).    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_empire#The_rise_and_fall_of_empires_in_Persia Cyrus II the Great reunited the two branches of the descendants of Teispes (Anshan and the rest of Persia). Ruled until 530.      
560 BCE   Neriglissar (a.k.a. Nergal-sharezer) became king of Babylon until 556 BCE)          
556 BCE   Labashi-Marduk, Chaldean king of Babylon (556 BCE), and son of Nergal-sharezer (Neriglissar). Labashi-Marduk succeeded his father when still only a boy, after the latter's four-year reign. Most likely due to his very young age, he was unfit to rule, and was murdered in a conspiracy only nine months after his inauguration. Nabonidus was consequently chosen as the new king.          
555 BCE   Nabonidus (a.k.a. Nabu-na'id) became king of Babylon according to extra-biblical evidence. He ruled until 539, when Cyrus the Great (Persian) captured Babylon. Nabonidus is the last Chaldean king of Babylon.  Nabonidus was not a member of the royal family. http://www.harding.edu/USER/jdfortner/WWW/pdf/chronology.pdf        
553 BCE   Nabonidus left Babylon to live in Teima in northern Arabia  (probably to establish trade routes). He remained absent from the capital city until his 11th
regional year, during which time his son
Belshazzar served as co-regent. 
         
550 BCE     Cyrus assumed control over Media, creating a powerful Persian and Median empire. This provided the force needed to defeat Babylon later. Cyrus rallied the Persians and defeated the  Median forces of Astyages.       
c. 550 BCE     Zoroaster believed that he heard the voice the god, Ahura Mazda, which told him to start a new religion.    Mithra was the sun god, and most important god or truth.  Zoroaster was a priest in a temple in the eastern part of Western Asia (Persia).       
543 BCE   Nabonidus returned to Babylon and relieved Belshazzar of his post as co-regent. See the extant "Chronicle of Nabonidus", which is a stone that describes this. Nabonidus was in Babylon when Cyrus came calling. On Oct. 11, Nabonidus fled Babylon. On Oct. 12, the army of Cyrus walked into Babylon without having to fight. Nabonidus returned and was arrested. Nothing is known of Belshazzar' s activities after 543 B.C. (cf. Ronald H. Sack, “Belshazzar,” in ABD, 1: 661). http://www.harding.edu/USER/jdfortner/WWW/pdf/chronology.pdf        
539 BCE Daniel reads, 5:30 That very night Belshazzar, king of the Babylonians, was slain, (31) and Darius the Mede took over the kingdom, at the age of sixty-two. Cyrus the Great (Persian) captured Babylon on Oct. 12. Perhaps Daniel is thinking of Darius the Great who ruled over Media and Persia 10 years later. There is no Darius in history at this time who could have been the ruler of Babylon and Media Persia. Also, Belshazzar was not king and was no longer even co-regent, having been dismissed in c. 543 BCE.        
536 BCE Ussher's date for Book of Ezra histroy to begin.            
c. 536 BCE Book of Daniel was written (according to the conservative Christian view). There are many reasons to believe that this was actually written 167-164 BCE, during the revolt and assault by Antiochus IV, and few reason to believe an older date. It seems to be written for the purpose of rallying support for a revolt and fight against Antiochus.   According to tradition, Jews begin to return to Jerusalem for the purpose of rebuilding the Temple. Note:  Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach a.k.a. Ecclesiasticus was written early in the 2nd century. It later made it to the Septuagint and is considered canonical by Catholics (apocryphal by Jews now). However it was also found at Qumran. This adds to the fact that 2nd century docs were popular at Qumran.         
530 BCE   Cambyses II, ruled Persian from 530-522 BC Cambyses II (Kambujiya II) was son of Cyrus I and had ruled Anshan from 600 -559 BCE. He was a Persian king of good family whom king Astyages of Media, had married his daughter Mandane. The issue of this union was Cyrus II, the Great (Herod., I, 46, 107).  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambyses        
521 BCE   Darius the Great becomes Emperor of Media and Persia. He reigned until 485 BCE. His father was Hystaspes, who (it is believed) promoted Zoroastrianism in Persia. This may be the Darius to which the author of Daniel was referring. He may have just had the dates confused. Dan 9:1, Daniel denotes him as "In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, by birth a Mede..."  If he did mean this Darius, he was way off again.        
516 BCE Temple is rebuilt in Jerusalem   One version of the story - Upon returning to Jerusalem, the northern area was inhabited by Samaritans (the capital of the Northern Kingdom was Samaria). The Samaritans eventually came to establish their religion on the Torah (but nothing past the 5 books). However, they claim that Mt.Gerizim was their Holy Place - perhaps because the Jews would not let them worship with them in the Jewish holy place of the Temple in Jerusalem. Wiki     After the Temple is built, the Jews have pretty much dropped Hebrew as their language and now speak mostly Aramaic. Future writings in Aramaic would be called "targums".
 BCE              
500 BCE   Beginning of the 5th Century BCE   World Population about 100 Million.      
499 BCE   This is the time of the Persian Wars between Greece and the great Persian empire. There would be a back and forth victory and defeat for both sides. Persian-Greco Wars started in 499 BC and lasted until 448 BC.           
495 BCE   Birth of Pericles (495 - 429 BCE) [pear-a-cleez], Athenian statesman.          
495 BCE Birth of Anaxagoras (c.495 - 428 BCE) [an-nax-ag-or-us], Greek philosopher.   Part of the Ionian school of philosophy. He's mentioned in the Gorgias at 465d by Socrates. Only by knowing that Anaxagoras believed that all things existed initially combined as infinitesimally small units can you understand 465d. See also ideas in the Theaetetus.        
490 BCE   Battle of Marathon- King Darius I of Persia first attempt to conquer Greece and bring it into the Persian empire. Though out numbered, the Athenians pushed back the Persians in near miraculous form.        
490 BCE Approximate birth date of the Sophist Protagoras of Abdera (c. 490 - c. 410 BCE), who is the Sophist in Plato's Protagoras.    Protagoras is the originator of the line, "Man is the measure of all things." His values are all relative (but not as nihilistic as Gorgias), which contrasted dramatically with Socrates who constantly tried to pin sophists down to define virtue. Protagoras was friends with Pericles, who's relationship is discussed by Plutarch. There is a dialogue that has his name in Plato. He was agnostic about the gods.        
487 BCE       Gorgias (ca. 487-376 BC), Greek sophist, pre-socratic philosopher and rhetorician, was a native of Leontini in Sicily.       
486 BCE   Xerxes I, son of Darius I and Atossa, the daughter of Cyrus the Great, ruled Persia from 486-465 BC Xerxes I may have been Ahashverosh in the Book of Esther. In 465 he was murdered by his vizier Artabanus who raised Artaxerxes I to the throne.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xerxes_I        
485 BCE Pindar, a choral song writer, wrote of the "Homeridae" [homer-id-ee] (meaning children of Homer).             
485 BCE Birth of Gorgias (ca. 487-376 BC), Greek sophist, pre-Socratic philosopher and rhetorician, was a native of Leontini in Sicily.    Gorgias was a nihilistic relativist.        
485 BCE Parmenides makes the ontological argument against nothingness.   Socrates would engage in the dialectic with Parmenides when Socrates was 18 years old. Plato allows Socrates to appear to be confounded by Parmenides (I know I sure was).        
480 BCE   Greece thwarts a Persian invasion. At this point, Athens becomes the ruling center of Greece. Sparta began to worry about the extent of Athen's control, which would eventually lead to the Peloponnsian war of 431 between Sparta and Athens.        
475 BCE Aeschylus (b.525 - d.456) [es-ca-luss], who is credited as being the father of tragedy, accepted an invitation from Hieron (the tyrant) to travel to Sicily to perform.            
c. 470 BCE Birth of Aspasia, a notable contributor to the history of rhetoric.            
c. 470 BCE Birth of Socrates (c. 470 BC–399 BC)    Note that there is some controversy about the life of Socrates. Some have argued that he never really existed. This thought develops from the fact that Socrates never produced any writings of his own and Plato's later dialogues on Socrates mix his own ideas.         
c. 470 BCE Birth of Aspasia (b.470 - d. 410 BCE), a notable contributor to the history of rhetoric. She lived 60 years. See War with Samian War of 440 BCE.   She would be a close companion to Pericles and would be notable for her expertise in politics and rhetoric. Socrates says that he learned rhetoric from her. Perhaps this is another reason he supported the education of women. Many scholars have argued that Diotima of Mantinea, portrayed in Plato's Symposium, was actually Aspasia.        
465 BCE   Artaxerxes I Longimanus, ruled Persia from 465-425 BC. He belonged to the Achaemenid dynasty and was the successor of Xerxes I. He is mentioned in two books of the Bible, Ezra and Nehemiah. He allowed the Jews to rebuild Jerusalem. He was followed on the throne by his son Xerxes II.    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artaxerxes_I_Longimanus        
462 BCE   Pericles (c.495-429 BC) challenged the prime council of Athens (called the Areopagus) and became a political hero of Democracy in Athens.          
c. 450 BCE     He lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. 425 BC). He's called the Father of History. He is famous for his writings on the conflict between Greece and Persia, as well as the descriptions he wrote of different places and  people he met on his travels.     Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: ΗΡΟΔΟΤΟΣ, Herodotus) was an ancient historian      
448 BCE   End of Greco-Persian wars.          
447 BCE   Under the leadership of Pericles, the Parthenon begins being built in Athens. It would be completed in 432 BCE.          
445 BCE   Pericles (c.495-429 BC) negociates a truce between Athens and Sparta.          
440 BCE According to religious timelines, First and Second Chronicles and Ezra written (probably from Jerusalem). Malachi begins to preach.            
431 BCE   Peloponnesian War (431 - 404 BCE) between Athens and the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta. Begins with the invasion of Attica by a Spartan army.        
c. 431 BCE Xeonphon (ca. 431 – 355 BC) was born. He was a soldier who was a fan of Socrates. He wrote of Socrates in a more pedestrian manner than Plato.   He recorded dialogues of Socrates like Plato did, but with less flair and beauty.         
430 BCE   A plague, possible the bubonic, begins in Athens and continues through 428. It wipes out a quarter of the population of Athens. Pericles dies during the plague. His successor was Cleon (d. 422 BC).        
428 BCE Plato (428 - 347 BCE) was born in Athens.   He was a student of Socrates, teacher of Aristotle, writer, and founder of the Academy in Athens. He wrote of  dualistic metaphysics, often called (in metaphysics) Platonism or (Exaggerated) Realism. Plato's metaphysics divides the world into two distinct aspects: the intelligible world of "forms" and the perceptual world we see around us.        
423 BCE   Xerxes II,  ruled Persia for 45 days in 423 BC After a reign of forty-five days, he was assassinated in 424 BC by his brother Sogdianus, who in turn was murdered by Darius II. He is an obscure historical figure known primarily from the writings of Ctesias. He was reportedly the only legitimate son of Artaxerxes I and his Queen Damaspia. He is known to have served as Crown Prince.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xerxes_II_of_Persia        
424 BCE   Darius II Nothus, ruled Persia from 424-404 BC He was originally called Ochus and often surnamed Nothus (from Greek νοθος, meaning 'bastard').  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Darius_II_of_Persia        
404 BCE   End of Peloponnesian war between Sparta and Athens. Athens lost.  Economic impact was great and poverty spread across Greece.        
404 BCE   Artaxerxes II Mnemon, ruled Persia from 404-359 BC  He defended his position against his brother Cyrus the Younger, who was defeated and killed at the Battle of Cunaxa in 401 BC, and against a revolt of the provincial governors, the satraps (366 - 358). He also became involved in a war with Persia's erstwhile allies, the Spartans, who, under Agesilaus, invaded Asia Minor. To keep the Spartans busy, Artaxerxes subsidized their enemies in Greece - the Athenians, Thebans, and Corinthians, especially - to keep them busy back at home, in what would become known as the Corinthian War.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artaxerxes_II_of_Persia        
 BCE              
400 BCE   Beginning of the 4th Century BCE   World Population about 160 Million.      
c. 400 BCE Death of Aspasia            
399 BCE Death of Socrates.            
390 BCE   Defeat of Rome by the Gauls. The Gallic invasion was the turning point from Rome the city to Rome the State. Rome scambled to protect its cultural currency.  There was much Greek rhetoric about any defeat non-Greeks (the barbarians).  The defeat of the Romans was trumpeted as an illustration of the trumph of civilization over barbarism.  The old, "We must be so good because you're so bad".     Link  
384 BCE Birth of Aristotle - born in Stageira, Chalcidice. Aristotle was born In Stagira (sta-jigh-ra) on the Chalcidice (cal-sid-a-see) peninsula in NE Greece Aristotle's father was the a wealthy physician and personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedon.        
376 BCE Death of Gorgias, Greek rhetorician.            
367 BCE Aristotle went to Athens to train in Plato's Academy. He remained in the Academy for 20 years. Later, Aristotle would tutor Alexander the Great.        
359 BCE   Artaxerxes III Ochus, ruled from 359-338 BC          
355 BCE Death of Xenophon            
347 BCE Death of Plato            
338 BCE   Arses, ruled Persia from 338-336 BC          
336 BCE   Darius III Codomannus, ruled Persia from 336-330 BC          
335 BCE Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) established his school, the Lyceum, in Athens.            
334 BCE    Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE) began conquest of Middle East (Persia), spread Hellenism.          
333 BCE   Alexander the Great defeats the main army of the Persians led by Darius III and reigns as emperor until his death in 323. Alexander's army crossed the Cilician Gates and met and defeated the main Persian army under the command of Darius III at the Battle of Issus in 333 BC. Darius fled this battle in such a panic for his life that he left behind his wife, his children, his mother, and much of his personal treasure.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_the_Great        
332 BCE   Beginning of the Hellenistic Age (332 - 37 BCE)          
332 BCE   Alexander the Great conquerors Palestine, making it part of the Hellenistic kingdom of Ptolemaic Egypt. The Jews were allowed considerable cultural and religious freedom.           
323 BCE   Alexander the Great dies and there is a power struggle for control among his officers for the next 22 years.          
312 BCE   Seleucus, one of the four major generals, establishes himself in Babylon.          
308 BCE              
306 BCE Epicurus founded his school in Athens. He called it The Garden. He was a student of Lampsacus, who was a student of Democritus.            
301 BCE   After the Battle of Ipsus in Phrygia, the empire is divided into four major portions. Cassander ruled in Greece, Lysimachus in Thrace, Seleucus I Nicator ("the winner") in Mesopotamia and Iran, and Ptolemy I in the Levant and Egypt. Antigonus I ruled for a while in Asia Minor and Syria, but was soon defeated by the other four generals. Control over Indian territory was short-lived, ending when Seleucus I was defeated by Chandragupta Maurya, the first Mauryan emperor.    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_the_Great        
300 BCE   Seleucus I Nicator founded Antioch, which became a populous city of ancient Syria. Today it is a major town of south-central Turkey (near the mouth of the Orontes River about 12 miles northwest of the Syrian border. Antioch became the center of the Seleucid kingdom (until 64 BCE, when if was annexed by Rome). Even before Antiochus IV Epiphany's came into office, he showed signs of a strong Hellenizing policy by contributing to the building of the temple of Zeus in Antioch and to the theatre of Antioch.  Later, as king, he built an aqueduct, a council hall, a marketplace, and a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus. Link   Antiochus IV Epiphany's. (2005). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved August 23, 2005, from Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service    
300 BCE   Beginning of the 3rd Century BCE          
291 BCE Zeno of Citium founds Stoic school of philosophy in Athens.            
285 BCE   Ptolemy II Philadelphus became second king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt.  Ptolemy II would later have the Torah translated into Greek, becoming the Septuagint.         
270 BCE   By 270 BC, Hellenistic states consolidated, with:

        * The Antigonid Empire, centered on Greece
        * The
Seleucid Empire in Asia
        * The
Ptolemaic kingdom in Egypt and Cyrenaica

I'll mainly follow the Seleucid Empire: The first Seleucid king was Seleucus I Nicator (born c. 358 BC–281 BC). The Seleucid Empire covers mostly Syrian portions of the empire. Antiochus IV is the 8th of the 20 Seleucid kings. As the Roman Empire begins to rise, the latter Seleucid kings are vassal kings of Rome. Antiochus IV was a vassal king. You would think that prophecy would deal with a dominant king of the day. However, since so many interpreters consider him to be the man, I will follow his career.         
261 BCE   Antiochus II Theos (286–246 BC; reigned 261–246 BC) succeeded his father Antiochus I Soter as head of the Seleucid dynasty on 261 BC. The second of 20 Seleucid kings.        
250 BCE 250 BCE, The Septuagint (Pentateuch translated from Hebrew into Greek), probably done during the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285–246 BC), Greek ruler of Egypt around 250 BCE. Note: There is some controversy in the date of the LXX creation. See extended comment. The 70 only translated the Torah, and the prophetic books were added over time. There is no extant manuscript before the 4th century. It's difficult to know when the prophetic books were available. Philo quotes from a Greek Isaiah. And NT quotes of the OT come mostly from what would later be classified as the Septuagint. Link      Some believe the LXX was created around 200 CE (perhaps as the result of Origen's Hexapla). I read this on a Christian fundamentalist site.  See: http://www.dccsa.com/greatjoy/LXXHOAX.htm. However, Philo discusses the Greek translation, saying that the 72 only translated the Torah. So, at least some of it was in existence prior to the Christian era.
246 BCE   Ptolemy III Euergetes began reign as 3rd king of the Egyptian Ptolemy dynasty. Successfully waged the 3rd Syrian war against the Seleucid kingdom.          
246 BCE   Seleucus II Callinicus or Pogon (the epithets meaning "beautiful victor" and "bearded", respectively) reigned from 246 to 225 BC as head of the Seleucid dynasty.   Seleucus II was proclaimed king by his mother, Laodice, while her partisans at Antioch murdered Berenice and her son.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seleucus_II_Callinicus        
225 BCE   Seleucus III Ceraunus or Soter (c. 243 BC - 223 BC), was the eldest son of Seleucus II Callinicus and a Seleucid king.  After a brief reign of three years (225 BC-223 BC), Seleucus was assassinated in Asia Minor by members of his army while on campaign against Attalus I of Pergamon. His title "Ceraunus" means "Thunder" in Greek.        
223 BCE   Antiochus III the Great, (c. 241 - 187 BC, ruled 223 - 187 BC), younger son of Seleucus II Callinicus, became ruler of the Seleucid kingdom as a youth of about eighteen in 223 BC.  The 5th of 20 Seleucid kings.        
200 BCE The Nash Papyrus may have been created this early or as late the middle of the 2nd century. It's four fragments (3 inches by 5 inches total) of papyrus containing 24 lines of Hebrew text (corresponding to Exodus 20.2–17 and Deuteronomy 6.4–5). The 10 commandments are given but not in the same order as the traditional text. It is also a different order from the Septuagint. It's probably not meant to be a biblical manuscript but more of an inspirational writing or liturgy. See Extended Comments --------------> This is one item that shows that the OT manuscripts were not "standardized" yet. They were basically still being written. The fact that this one differs supports this earlier date. Link # 1 PDF   Nash Papyrus:

1. Thou shalt not have other gods before me.
2. Thou shalt not make for thyself an image.
3. Thou shalt not take up the name of Jahwe thy God in vain.
4. Remember the day of the Sabbath to hallow it
5. Honour thy father and thy mother
6. Thou shalt not do adultery.
7. Thou shalt not do murder.
8. Thou shalt not steal.
9. Thou shalt not bear against thy neighbour vain witness.
10. Thout shalt not covet the wife of thy neighbor, etc.
200 BCE   Beginning of the 2rd Century BCE   World Population about 150 Million (it went down)      
198 BCE   Palestine was conquered by King Antiochus III (247-187 BCE). He allow the Jews freedom and allowed them to governed themselves by the Torah. However, by this time, many cites in Palestine eagerly adopted Hellenism and Greek learning.      Judaism. (2005). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved August 23, 2005, from Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service    
196 BCE   The Rosetta Stone was made. It was found in 1799 CE by French soldier in a small village in the Delta call Rosetta (Rashid). It later translated in 1822 CE.   Wiki      
191 BCE   The Battle of Thermopylae was fought in 191 BC between a Roman army led by consul Manius Acilius Glabrio and a Seleucid force led by King Antiochus III the Great. The Romans were victorious, and as a result, Antiochus was forced to flee Greece. (from Wikipedia)          
c.190 BCE Book of Tobit was probably written early in the 2nd century BCE. Interestingly to me is that it (fragments) was also found in Qumran Cave 4 (where Daniel was found) and it was also written in both  Aramaic and Hebrew. It also deals with Angels (like Daniel). It provided the name of the 3rd archangel - Raphael.   There are several other apocryphal works found in cave 4 that refer to things common to Daniel. There is even a "Words of Michael the Archangel" document fragment. I hypothesize that these documents were collected together as items created in the early 2nd century. I need to investigate if this is a common trait.        
189 BCE   Antiochus III was defeated by a Roman army in the Battle of Magnesia. He is forced to give up all but 10 of his warships, surrender Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and pay tribute of 15,000 talents of silver. "Following this, although the remaining Seleucid kings enjoyed a great deal of autonomy, they were vassal kings of Rome."  http://www.bibleonly.org/proph/dan/AE.html        
187 BCE   Seleucus IV Philopator reigned from 187 BC to 176 BC over the Seleucid kingdom consisting of Syria (now including Cilicia and Palestine), Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Nearer Iran (Media and Persia). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seleucus_IV_Philopator The true heir, Demetrius, son of Seleucus, now being retained in Rome as a hostage, the kingdom was seized by the younger brother of Seleucus, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, even though an infant son, also named Antiochus, was formal head of state for a few years until Epiphanes had him murdered.          
180 BCE Jesus Ben Sirach (Yeshua Ben Sira) wrote The Wisdom of Ben Sira (c. 180 - 175 BCE) a.k.a. "Ecclesiasticus". He was originally from Jerusalem, but may have written his work in Alexandria. It was written in Hebrew and translated later into Greek. "The Prologue to Ben Sira is generally considered the earliest witness to a canon of the books of the prophets." Yet, there is no mention of Daniel.   Proponents of a late date for Daniel hold this as strong evidence. Opponents of this view point out that he must have been prejudiced against writers who lived outside of Israel and he also didn't mention Ezra.      (accepted in the Roman Catholic canon but noncanonical for Jews and Protestants). It appeared in the Septuagint at some time, but was later rejected as apocryphal by the Jews.   
175 BCE Jason becomes high priest in Jerusalem by promising tribute to Antiochus IV, and by promising to promote Hellenism. Opposed to Jason were the Hasidic Jews (Hasideans), who were noted for uncompromising observance of Judaic Law. This group would later join the Maccabean revolt.  If Daniel was forged to invigorate the revolt, it was probably this group that did it. They would have done anything to stem to tide of Paganism and save their religion.  Antiochus IV Epiphanes. 8th of 20 kings of Seleucid Empire from 175 - 163 BCE. He immediately begins persecuting the Jews by allowing Jason to kill his rivals.  "His uncle, the brother of Antiochus III, should have become king. Through some considerable intrigue on the part of his mother, Antiochus IV took the throne in 175 BC."   Link   Hasidean. (2005). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved August 23, 2005    
170 BCE   Antiochus IV Epiphanes ordered the murder of the High Priest, Onias III. He issues a decree that outlaws the Jewish religion.          
170 BCE Book 1 of Book of Enoch (book 1 of 5) believed to have been written by Hasidic or Pharisaic Jews in Palestine. Enoch was quoted by Jude 1:14,15, and by number early Church Fathers. It written originally in Hebrew and then translated into Greek. Pseudepigrapha - Enoch was son of  Noah. From: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01602a.htm.            
169 BCE   Antiochus IV Epiphanes captures most of the territory in Egypt.          
168 BCE     He is mentioned in 2 Macc.5:8. Aretas I becomes the first Nabatean king. He reigned until 140 BCE.       
168 BCE   Antiochus IV Epiphanes returns to Egypt to finish his conquest and finds that Egypt is now under the protectorate of Rome. The Roman Governor, Popilleus Laenas, told Antiochus to leave immediately. Antiochus says he will give him an answer in the morning. Popilleus takes a stick and draws a circle around Antiochus and tells him that if he leaves the circle without giving an answer, he will be at war with Rome.  Oh SNAP!  Antiochus withdrew promptly.         
167 BCE   Antiochus IV Epiphanes, since he can't go to war, he turns his energies on the Jews. He commits the famous "Abomination of Desecration" by sacrificing a pig on the altar in the Temple. He further says that all Jews, under penalty of death, must do the same. A Jewish revolt was already brewing and this was the straw that broke the camels back. The Jews knew they would have to fight or face destruction        
166 BCE Daniel may have been written by someone who wanted to use the work to invigorate a revolt against Antiochus Epiphanes.   The term "Son of Man" is mentioned 68 times in the synoptic Gospels. It was central to Christ's message. I think it's also mentioned in the Book of Enoch.        
166 BCE Maccabean (Hasmonian) revolt - Mattathias of the priestly Hasmonean family led a revolt to liberate the Temple from Greek pagan influence.  The revolt was the result of Romans desecrating the temple and trying to impose Hellenistic rituals there.            
164 BCE   Antiochus IV Epiphanes died in Persia.          
143 BCE Simon Maccabeus, succeeded his brother, Jonathan, as leader of the Maccabean revolt against the Selucid dynasty. Simon became the first of the Hasmonean dynasty. Hasmonean Dynasty (142 - 63 BCE) Simon was son of Mattathias and brother of Judas Maccabeus. Link      
140 BCE   Rabel I reigned as Nabatean king from 140 to 120 BCE.          
134 BCE John Hyrcanus I, son of Simon Maccabaeus, reigns over the Jews as King from 134 to 104 BCE. He may also have set himself up as Saducee priest.  He forcibly converted the Idumeans to Judaism. Some Jews never accepted the Hasoneans as kings because they were not of Davidic descent.        
133 BCE   Rome reaches a population of 1 million people.          
120 BCE   Artetas II reigned as Nabatean king from 120 to 96 BCE.          
106 BCE   Cicero was born January 3, 106 BC in Arpinum, a small town just south of Rome. Cicero would eventually be invited by Julius Caesar to be part of his Triumverate in 61 BCE. Cicero was a Roman politician who excelled in rhetoric, law and philosophy. He spoke both Greek and Latin, as Romans did who considered themselves cultured.        
104 BCE Aristobulus I, son of John Hyrcanus, takes control of his father's rule- even having his mother and brothers imprisoned. This begins the downfall of the Hasmonean Dynasty. He only reigned 1 year.   His father's will said that Aristobulus was only to be high priest and that John Hyrcanus' wife should rule as Queen. Aristobulus seized control anyway casting his family in prison. It is believed that his mother and all of his brothers (except one- Jonathan) starved to death in prison. He died of an illness. He was very hostile to the Pharisees during his one year reign.  Read Josephus at this link      
103 BCE Alexander Jannaeus (Jonathan) became king of the Jews (until 78 BCE). He was released from prison by the widow of Aristobulus I. He married her (his brother's widow). Her name was Salome Alexandra. Jannaeus was also high priest.             
c. 100 BCE 1 Maccabees written. "The book tells the story of the conquest of Judea by the Greeks under Alexander the Great, the attempt by the Greeks to impose Greek culture on the Jews, and the Jewish revolt against that domination." - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1_Maccabees   Daniel is mentioned in 1Mac 2:60
"Daniel for his innocence was delivered from the mouth of
lions. "
       
100 BCE There is some contraversy over the following point. "The Jews destroyed the Samarian temple on Mt.Gerizim. This was done for religious reasons."     Link #1   Link 2  
c. 100 BCE The Letter of Aristeas was written. It claimed to be a letter from a pagan, Aristeas, who held a position in the court of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (who had Torah translated into Greek). It claimed to have been written around 240 BCE.   This pseudepigraphal letter was actually written by an Alexandrian Jew who wanted to elevate Judaism in the eyes of the non-Jewish community in Alexandria. It makes several historical errors. See http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/letteraristeas.html Pseudepigrapha      
100 BCE   Beginning of the 1st Century B.C.E.           
90 BCE   Obodas (Avdat) I reigned as Nabatean king from 90 - 87 BCE.          
87 BCE   Aretas III reigned as Nabatean king from 87 to 62 BCE.          
83 BCE Sibylline Books (writings of the Sibylline prophetesses) were partially destroyed in a fire. From: http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/sib/ - The remaining books were destroyed by fire by Roman General Flavious Stilicho (365-408 C.E.). The prophecies had such appeal that they were greatly forged, and a whole new work created between the 2nd and 6th century C.E. called the Pseudo-Sibyllines. This work is largely quoted by early church fathers. See the Catholic Ency: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13770a.htm   The Catholic Encyclopedia says "the Sibylline Oracles (Bk. III, verses 388 sqq.), supposed to have been written about 170 B.C., contain an allusion to Antiochus IV, and to the ten horns of Dan., vii, 7, 24,"

This is just incorrect. It is generally accepted to have been written in the 2nd century CE. 
Link      
78 BCE   Rome: Sulla dies. The revolt of Lepidus is defeated by Pompey, who will rule with Crassus.          
78 BCE Salome Alexandra became Queen of the Jews (until 67 BCE). She was 64 yrs old when her husband, Alexander Jannaeus died (probably of alcoholism).    She appointed one of her sons, Hyrcanus II, to be high priest and her other son, Aristobulus II to be over the military.         
67 BCE Queen Alexandra died and Hyrcanus II is made king of the Jews. This begins a power struggle between he and his brother Aristobulus II. Aristobulus II initially gains the upper hand and outs Hyrcanus. Antipater the Idumaean (father of Herod the Great) convinced Hyrcanus that Aristobulus II is going to kill him and that he needed protection from Nabatean king (Arabian) Aretas III in Petra. Aretas III agrees to help Hyrcanus II and came up and warred against Aristobulus II for several months, however, Syria sides with Aristobulus II and Aretas withdraws.    Later, Pompey removes Aristobulus II in 63 BCE (sent him to prison in Rome) and gives Idumaea to Antipater to govern and makes Hyrcanus II high priest in Jerusalem. Hyrcanus II would later be an ethnarch in 47 BCE under Gaius Julius Caesar. Link      
64 BCE   Pompey removes all Syrian kings and annexed Syria as a Roman province. This is the absolute end of the Seleucid rulers.        
63 BCE   Jerusalem (Judea) captured by Roman general, Pompey. When Judea was taken, Pompey removed the high priest and installed his own high priest, Hyrcanus II. The Jews didn't like that and there were frequent insurrections.        
62 BCE   Obodas II reigned as Nabatean king from 62 to 47          
61 BCE   Julius Caesar invited Cicero to be the fourth member of his existing partnership with Pompey and Marcus Licinius Crassus, an assembly that would eventually be called the First Triumvirate.   Link   Wiki  
c. 60 BCE   Historian Livy born. He was a prolific historian who wrote about Roman history, covering years 386 to 9 BCE. He died in 17 CE.           
55 BCE   Julius Caesar invades Britain.          
53 BCE   Marcus Licinius Crassus died. In 60 Crassus, Caesar and Pompey formed the first triumverate. Crassus was defeated and was killed at the battle of Carrhaw in southern Anatolia.          
49 BCE Per Richard Carrier article linked below, "Christian apologist Douglas Geivett has declared that the evidence for the physical resurrection of Jesus meets, and I quote, "the highest standards of historical inquiry" and "if one takes the historian's own criteria for assessing the historicity of ancient events, the resurrection passes muster as a historically well-attested event of the ancient world," as well-attested, he says, as Julius Caesar's crossing of the Rubicon in 49 B.C" See: http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/richard_carrier/resurrection/lecture.html Civil war breaks out in Rome. Julius Caesar Augustus crosses the Rubicon. This results in his undisputed leader of the Roman world. 1. We have Caesar's own words in written in his The Civil War in Latin. We have no writing of Jesus. 2. We have contemporary hostile witnesses (like Cicero) reporting the event. We have none for the resurrection. 3. We have inscriptions and coins produced after the war to remember the Republical Civile War related to the Rubicon. We have no physical evidence for the resurrection. 4. We have have the story of the Rubicon Crossing in almost every contemporary historian of the period:Suetonius, Appian, Cassius Dio, Plutarch, who have proven reliability. They also quote other sources and interview eye witnesses. We don't have a single established historian mention the resurrection until the 3rd or 4th century, and in the case they are only reporting what Christians believe. 5. Rome could not have proceeded as it did without Caesar moving an army into Italy.  With the Resurrection, all you had to do was believe it was true - whether is actually happened or not would not keep Christianity from happening.  Richard Carrier Link:       
48 BCE   Pompey dies after being pursued by Julius Caesar. While landing in Pelusium to seek help from Ptolemy, he took a boat to shore. He was killed as he attempted to land.          
47 BCE   Malichus I reigned as Nabatean king from 47 to 30 BCE.          
47 BCE Antipater the Idumaean (Herod the Great's father) was appointed Procurator of Judea. He then appointed Herod as Governor of Galilee. Herod was 25-yrs old.            
46 BCE   The Julian calendar was instituted by Julius Caesar. This calendar system remained the main calendar system until 24 February 1582, when it was replaced by the Gregorian calendar (to correct problem of too many days). The Gregorian calendar was named after Pope Gregory XIII. By athority of the church, the epoc day of the supposed birth of Jesus was chosen for the start of the calendar. This is the beginning of  the use of AD and BC.  To put this in perspective, when Columbus sailed to America, he had no concept of the Gregorian calendar and the use of AD or BC in reference to the dates of years.        
44 BCE   Julius Caesar (b.100 BCE) was murdered. Second in command was Mark Anthony. He and Octavian promised to punish his murders, Brutus and Cassius, who fled.        
43 BCE Herod Antipater the Idumaean died, assasinated by a political rival.            
40 BCE Antigonus the Hasmonean was the son of king Aristobulus II of Judea. In 40 BCE he led a Parthian-supported invasion of Judea, seized Jerusalem, and sent his uncle Hyrcanus II to Babylon in chains (after biting off his ears to render him ineligible for the office of High Priest.   See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigonus_the_Hasmonean        
37 BCE   Beginning of the Roman Age (37 BCE - 324 AD)          
36 BCE Herod the Great re-takes Jerusalem from a Parthian invasion with the help of Mark Antony's forces lead by Sosius. Herod would reign as king until his death in 4 BCE.            
30 BCE Herod shifted his loyalties to Octavian when he saw the balance of power move in that direction. Mark Antony committed suicide with Cleopatra after a series of military loses to Octavian.  Mark Antony was once a friend of Octavian (and part of the triumvirate) when Antony was married to his sister, Octavia. Antony divorced Octavia and Octavian declared war on Cleopatra.         
27 BCE   Caesar Augustus (b. 63 BCE - d.14 CE) began reign as Roman Emperor. He reigned 41 years until his death in 14 CE. He was previously known as Octavian.        
20 BCE Herod began to build the temple in Jerusalem.            
9 BCE See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aretas_IV_Philopatris   Aretas' daughter, Phasaelis, married Herod Antipas, otherwise known as Herod the Tetrarch in the NT. When Herod divorced Phasaelis to take his brother's wife Herodias, mother of Salome (also of Biblical infamy), in 36 AD, Phaesalis fled to her father. Relations between Herod and Aretas were already strained over border disputes, and with his family honor shamed, Aretas invaded Judah and captured territories along the West Bank of the Jordan River, including the areas around Qumran.        
9 BCE   Aretas IV Philopatris was the King of the Nabataeans from roughly 9 BC to 40 AD.          
7 BCE              
6 BCE Birth of Jesus according to Matthew's Gospel. Jesus was allegedly born and then fled to Egypt and returned at the death of Herod in 4 BCE   "No historical record supports a Roman census earlier than 6 CE. And there is absolutely no possibility of Quirinius being the governor of Syria during the reign of Herod the Great. The gospels, especially Luke, had presented two events (Herod and the census) as though they were historically simultaneous when they were not. This fundamental inconsistency shows that Luke had resorted to invention to tie in the nativity with historical events. "http://www.geocities.com/paulntobin/Quirinius.html        
4 BCE   Death of Herod the Great. Herod was a Roman-appointed king of Judaea. Herod's father was Antipater, who supported Pompey when he invaded Palestine in 63 BC. Herod met Mark Antony through his father's association with Pompey. Herod and Mark Antony would be friends for most of their lives, but Herod would support Octavian in the end (when Antony and Octavian were enemies). Julius Casar appointed Antipater procurator of Judeas in 47 BCE and made him a Roman citizen. Herod was appointed governor of Galilee in the same year.        
4 BCE   Herod Archelaus, son of Herod the Great, is appointed as ethnarch over Judaea, Idumaea and Samaria by Roman Emperor Augustus. He was not given the full title of "King", perhaps because he was unpopular with the Jews. After the death of his father and before being appointed as enthnarch, Herod Archelaus had 3000 Pharisees put to death for sedition (according to Josephus). His cruelty finally got him banished to France in 6 CE (Caesar listened to the Jews). He is mentioned by name in Matt.2:22.        
  BCE = Before Common Era, also referred to as BC
CE = Common Era, also referred to as AD
Beginning of 1st Century C.E. Note the population explosion that begins in 1802 CE. It will blow your mind. World Population about 170 Million       
1 CE "Around 300, a certain Hierocles endeavored to prove that the doctrines and the life of Apollonius were more valuable than those of Christ. Hierocles was soon refuted by the Christian bishop, Eusebius of Caesarea, in his extant Reply to Hierocles. In modern times, Voltaire and Charles Blount (1654-1693), the English freethinker, have adopted a similar standpoint." Apollonius of Tyana (c. 1-c. 100 AD) was a Greek Neo-Pythagorean philosopher and teacher. His teaching influenced both scientific thought and occultism for centuries after his death.   Wiki      
6 CE   Caesar Augustus sends Coponius (at the same time he sends Cyrenius to do the census) to be the first Prefect of Judea upon removal of Herod Archelaus, who was deposed to Vienne in Gaul Coponius is a predecessor of Pontius Pilate. This was the first guy to have Pilate's job.        
6 CE But Luke said Joseph and the pregnant Mary had to go to Bethlehem for a census by Publius Sulpicius Quirinius  (Cyrenius). This is reliably dated to 6 CE. This is about ten years after the death of Herod. http://www.geocities.com/paulntobin/Quirinius.html   Before this time, Judaea was not a Roman province. It would not be subject to any previous census. Read Josephus account here:  Link # 1   Link # 2  
6 CE Yehuda of Galilee, one of the three characters claiming to be messiahs that were crucified by the Romans - According to Josephus - Yehuda of Galilee (6 CE), Theudas (44 CE), and Benjamin the Egyptian (60 CE)            
14 CE   Tiberius becomes 2nd emperor of Rome and reigns until 37 C.E.. Tiberius appointed Pontius Pilate. Tiberius was following by his grandnephew and the great-grandson of Augustus, Gaius Caligula 37-41 C.E.          
26 CE   Pontius Pilate became governor of the small Roman province of Judea from 26 to 36 C.E.          
28 CE According to Luke 3:1, John the Baptist began his ministry in the 15th year of the reign of Tiberius.            
30 CE c. 30 C.E., According to Christian history, there was an earthquake at the time of the crucifixion that was severe enough to split rocks. Mt. 27:51-53.   Seneca and Pliny the Elder, who recorded all the great earthquakes, meteors, comets, and ellipses they could find and who lived during the period of Jesus, failed to mention the event. - http://tftb.com/deify/didjesus.htm        
30 CE c. 30 C.E., According to Christian history, Darkness from the sixth to the ninth hour (12 pm to 3 pm). (Matthew 27:45, Mark 15:33, Luke 23:44).   Seneca and Pliny the Elder, who recorded all the great earthquakes, meteors, comets, and ellipses they could find and who lived during the period of Jesus, failed to mention the event. - http://tftb.com/deify/didjesus.htm        
30 CE c. 30 C.E., According to Christian history, the Veil of the Temple was torn in half (Mark 15:38).   In my mind, there is no way that this could have happened without Josephus talking about it. Paul would have spoken of it. "You heard about the veil being torn in half - that was our guy."        
30 CE c. 30 C.E., According to Christian history, Christ was crucified and MANY graves that contained holy people broke open and the occupants were raised to life. They apparently hung around their graves for 3 days, then they traveled into the city and appear to MANY people. "...brains..." Matt.27:51-53 (See NIV version).   Yet, not one historical mention by an independent source. You'd think this would have caused quite a stir. How long did they hang around? At least four days or more.         
30 CE The chief priests bribe the soldiers with a "large sum of money" to keep quite about seeing the angel and Jesus being gone from the tomb. Mt. 28:11-15.   To me, this smacks of a cover up. By the time the Gospels are in circulation in the 2nd century, this has become a common question. "If Jesus rose from the dead, why didn't anyone know about it? Where are the hostile eye witnesses?"  These are the type of stories that had to be created to explain why. Nothing stands in need of a lie like a lie.        
34 CE   Herod Philip died. He was a son of Herod the Great. He was Tetrarch of Iturea and Trachonitis from 4 BCE to 34 CE. This date is important because Josephus tells us that the quarrel between Aretas IV and Herod Antipas happened about the same time that Herod Philip died (Ant. 18.5.1. 109).  See Josephus:       
37 CE Simon Magus is believed to have practiced Gnosticism that affected Christianity. Some say he founded Gnosticism, which is an eclectic religion borrowing from many views including "Occultism, Oriental Mysticism, astrology, magic, elements from Jewish tradition, Christian views of redemption, and even aspects of Plato's doctrine that man is not at home in the bodily realm" (from: http://www.meta-religion.com/Esoterism/Gnosticism/gnosticism.htm) Josephus Flavius was born. He was a native of Judea. For a time, he was Governor of Galilee, the province where Jesus did most of his teaching (according to the Gospels). He would later be a Jewish Historian. Josephus would begin writing his work, The Antiquities of the Jews, near the end of the 1st century. It was a huge work of 20 volumes. Whole pages would be devoted to petty robbers and obscure leaders.          
 CE   According to Josephus, John the Baptist is executed.          
c. 37 CE According to traditional timelines, Paul (Saul) converts to Christianity. In Acts 9, Paul, who is still called Saul, meets with disciples in Demascus and then, while still called Saul, goes to Jerusalem and meets the disciples. Yet, Gal. 1 says he didn't go to Jerusalem for 3 years and then only met 2 disciples (Peter and James) Acts 9. & Gal. 1, See 40 CE for more info. Caligula becomes emperor. He declares himself God. He will reign until 41 CE. In Gal. 1:13-24, Paul says that- At his conversion, he did not go to Jerusalem to learn the gospel from the Apostles. Instead, he first went to Arabia and then to Damascus. He claims that he did not go to Jerulsalem until 3 years after his conversion. Even then, Gal.1 says that he only stayed 15 days in Jerusalem and only saw Peter and James, "the Lord's brother".        
c. 38 CE   Seneca the Elder (b. 4 BCE - d.65 CE), a Roman historian, wrote  lost historical work, containing the history of Rome from the beginning of the civil wars almost down to his own death. No mention of Christ or of Nero blaming the Christians for burning Rome. He was a personal tutor to Nero. He was a Stoic philosopher. He wrote until the year he died, so he could have written about the fire in Rome. "In 65, Seneca's enemies denounced him as having been a party to the conspiracy of Piso. Ordered to commit suicide, he met death with fortitude and composure." -http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-6550 There is a belief that Seneca met the Apostle Paul, and there are, apparently, a set of spurious letters to prove this.      
39 CE Philo Judaeus (c. 20 BC to c. 45 C.E.) wrote the Legatio ad Caium. Philo was a Hellenized Jew who read the Septuagint. An Alexandrian Jewish philosopher. His writings are often quoted in early Christian Literature. "He used the concept of the Logos. Logos is the intermediary through which God's will acts and is thus the creative power that orders the world." http://www.answers.com/topic/philo   Surely Philo would have mentioned Herod killing babies, the Vail of the Temple being torn in half, the earth quakes, the zombie saints walking the streets - But he does not.        
40 CE Aretas IV Philopatris, who was King of the Nabataeans from 9BC to 40 CE, died. The Apostle Paul mentions him in (2 Corinthians 11:32, 33, cf Acts 9:23, 24). He says that he has to sneak out of Damascus to escape Aretas. If true, this means that Paul was a Christian before 40 AD. Malichus II reigned as Nabatean king from 40 to 75 CE.          
41 CE   41 C.E., Claudius (41-54 C.E.) becomes emperor until he's poisoned by his 4th wife Agrippina. Nero become emperor.          
43 CE   Pomponius Mela wrote De situ orbis libri III. He was the earliest Roman geographer.  Mela's geography was cited by Pliny the Elder in his encyclopedia of natural science as an important authority.        
44 CE   Cuspius Fadus was Procurator of Iudaea Province from 44 to 47 CE.          
44 CE James the Great allegedly martyred. According to the story he saw an apparition of Mary on a pillar at Caesar Augusta which made him return to Judea where he was then beheaded by Herod Agrippa himself. His body was taken up by angels who sailed him in a rudderless boat to Irea Flavia in Spain. There, a massive rock closed about his relics at Compostela.   Did anyone actually believe that?  - "Saint James the Great, the apostle, is not to be confused with the author of the Epistle of James. St James is the brother of John, the sons of Zebedee." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_the_Great        
45 CE   Quintus Curtius Rufus was a Roman historical writer who wrote Historiae Alexandri Magni, a biography of Alexander the Great in Latin. For his date, we only know that he probably wrote during the reign of Claudius.        
47 CE   Tiberius Julius Alexander was Procurator of Iudaea Province from 47 to 48 CE.          
48 CE   Ventidius Cumanus was Procurator of Iudaea Province from 48 to 52 CE.          
48 CE   Reign of King Herod Agrippa II from 48 to 93 CE. Paul is mentioned as having come before Agrippa in Acts 26:1          
c. 50 CE 1 Thessalonians thought to have been written by Paul from Corinth as few months after founding the church of Corinth.   In 2:14-16, Paul says that the Jews killed Jesus and their prophets, and persecuted them and forbade them from speaking to the Gentiles (Peter?). He also says that God will punish them for all that.        
51 CE Galatians was probably written by Paul. One theme is that some Christians came to the group in Galatia after Paul last spoke to them and told them that Paul's message was incomplete, and they must observe the laws of the Torah to be saved. Gal. 2:1 states that Paul has been a Christian for at least 14 years. So, if he was converted around 37, it would mean Galatians was written in 51 CE. See also comment at 40 CE.   The gospels are glaringly absent. Paul could have appealed to the Gospel of John regarding salvation and the words of Jesus regarding legalism. This was probably written in Antioch in Syria just after Paul's 1st missionary journey.        
52 CE   Marcus Antonius Felix was the Roman procurator of Iudaea Province from 52 to 60 CE. He is of interest because he is mentioned in Acts 24 and 25 as interacting with the Apostle Paul.          
54 CE   Nero (37 - 68 CE) began reign as Roman emperor.          
c. 54  CE Paul probably wrote Philippians            
c. 54  CE Paul probably wrote Philemon            
c. 54 CE 1 Corinthians was probably written by Paul from Ephesus during his 3rd missionary journey. Many would argue that there are problems with accepting it as completely authentic.            
c. 55  CE 2 Corinthians written. Paul again defends his right to be an Apostle, but he admits that he's prone to visions. When he has them, he does now what's happening around him.   2 Corinthians 12
12:1 ...I will go on to visions and revelations of the Lord. 12:2 I know a man in Christ who fourteen years ago was caught up to the third heaven [Paul speaking of himself-see v7]--whether in the body or out of the body I do not know, God knows.12:3 And I know that this man was caught up into Paradise--whether in the body or out of the body I do not know, God knows--12:4 and he heard things that cannot be told, which man may not utter.
       
c. 60 CE  Papyrus Oxyrhnchus 1224, a fragment that contains a few sayings of Jesus (24 lines or fragments of lines).   The date of this could be off by 100 or not. It's lack of NT ring makes it seem earlier than later. Read the lines here: http://www.gospels.net/translations/poxy1224translation.html        
c. 60 CE Paul probably wrote the epistle to the Romans.            
60 CE   Porcius Festus was Procurator of Iudaea Province from 60 to 62 CE. According to Acts, he interacted with Paul in Acts 25.           
c. 60  CE The Epistle of Hebrews (A Letter to Hebrews) written. It was written anonymously and became  popular in the 2nd and 3rd century. Clement of Alexandria wanted to get it accepted in the canon, so he said he thought is was written by Paul, thus furthering the tradition. However, Paul always claimed his letters, the writing is non-Pauline. Origen said "God only knows certainly", and then he argued against Pauline authorship. Tertullian said it was Barnabas. Clement of Rome quotes Hebrews.   Hebrews contains more knowledge of the life of Jesus than any other non-Gospel, NT book. However, all the  knowledge is the type of low-level soteriological information that would have circulated amidst the early Christians. They would have developed a genealogy to promote his Messianic identity (Heb.7:14 from tribe of Judah), and would have developed his post-death mission as being a mediator between God and man. However, there is no Gospel quote, no specific knowledge of Gospel actors, nothing about Christ's baptism, miracles, or post-resurrection appearances.         
c.60 CE              
c. 62 CE Letter of Paul to the Philippians written probably from Rome while Paul is in prison awaiting execution.   Polycarp mentions that Paul wrote more than one letter to the Philippians. Polycarp wrote his own letter to the Philippians around 135 CE.          
c. 62 CE Paul killed in Rome for treason.            
62 CE According to Josephus's Jewish Antiquities, (20.9), "the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James" is mentioned. Whether this is an interpolation or not is debatable. Nonetheless, James supposedly died after the death of procurator Porcius Festus, but before Lucceius Albinus took office (Antiquities 20,9). Lucceius Albinus was Procurator of Iudaea Province from 62 to 64 CE. Apparently, the high priest tried to convene the Sanhedrin but was deposed by Agrippa II before Albinus could arrive.  I need to study this further.        
64 CE c.64 - 67 C.E., Peter was allegedly martyred. Origen of Alexandria (ca. 185-254) said that he was crucified upside down in Rome. 64 C.E. Nero has some Christians killed, blaming them for the fire in Rome. This is recorded by Tactitus in the Annals XV, 44. This is controversial: http://tftb.com/deify/didjesus.htm This story only has one source: Tacitus, and it appears to be an interpolation. It was not mentioned by any Christian writer until the 15th century, after which, it is mentioned endlessly. It was never mentioned by Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Eusebius (church historian), Origen or any Christian historian until 1468 CE, when Johannes de Spire of Venice prints a copy of  the Annals of Tacitus.  I'm not sure what it true on this one. It's just so poorly documented.   I need to verify this. "...it is highly remarkable that no other ancient source associates Christians with the burning of Rome until Sulpicius Serverus (Sacred History, 2.29), in the fifth century (c. 408)"  
64 CE   Gessius Florus was Procurator of Iudaea Province from 64 to 66 CE.          
65 CE c. 65 C.E., "Q was possibly written, (German: Quelle, meaning 'source') a hypothetical Greek text used in writing of Matthew and Luke". From: http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/christian/blchron_xian_nt.htm.             
66 CE   66 C.E., Jewish revolt begins and is crushed by Vespasian. Anti-Semitism grows in Rome. First known public reference to Mithraism in Rome.  King Tiridates of Armenia visited Nero in Rome.  To Nero he said, “I have come to thee, my god, to worship thee as I do Mithras.”        
c. 67 CE Catholicism claims that Linus became the 2nd Pope in Rome.   Almost nothing is known of this person. At one point, there were a lot of writings that were claimed to be from Linus, but they ALL turned out to be pseudepigrapha. Pseudepigrapha      
68 CE Qumran community was destroyed Rome. The site of the Dead Sea Scrolls would be found in 1949.   The fluid nature of the text of the Torah indicated that it had not yet been "fixed". The manuscripts found in the Dead Sea Scrolls show variation in the text that was not allowed after the masoretes began copying the Jewish Bible. Masoretic texts begin to appear around the 9th century (maybe as early as the 7th) and extend through the 11th century.        
68 CE According to Hegesippus, James the Just was stoned to death in Jerusalem by the Pharisees soon after Vespasian crushed the revolt.  http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/hegesippus.html   There is a controversial account of this in Josephus (Antiquities 20,9) which says it was the high priest who had James the Just stoned - not the Pharisees. And a different date. "A debated passage, often characterized as a Christian interpolation, in Josephus's Jewish Antiquities records his death in Jerusalem as having occurred after the death of the procurator Porcius Festus, yet before Clodius Albinus took office — which has thus been dated to AD 62."        
69 CE   69 C.E., Vespasian, who a commander who crushed Jewish revolt in 66, became emperor (69 - 79 C.E.). He was succeeded by his son, Titus (79 - 81 C.E.)          
70 CE   70 C.E., Destruction of Second Temple by Romans (commanded by Titus) Because Mark mentions the Temple destruction (referred to as the "Little Apocalypse") in Mk 13, this has led some to conclude that Mark had prior knowledge of the destruction. Therefore, it just have been written soon after. Also  Contemporaries of Jesus would be about 75 yrs old now.      
73 CE   The Jewish fortress of Masada captured by Roman army.          
78 CE   c.78- Pliny the Elder publishes a 37-volume natural history encyclopedia.  http://groups.msn.com/JuntoSocietyAdults/sciencebits.msnw?action=get_message&mview=0&ID_Message=67&LastModified=4675401963218947888
         
80 CE c. 80 C.E., Luke is believed to have written the Acts of the Apostles probably in the Roman province of Asia near Ephesus. I think it was written in the second century. Roman coliseum is completed Arguments for an early date (60 CE) include lack of mentioning the result of Paul's trial and lack of mentioning the destruction of the Jerusalem and the Temple. Arguments for a later date include lack of mentioning the destruction of Jerusalem - a generation of eyewitnesses had died out. It is not mentioned by name by anyone until 177. Ignatius of Antioch (wrote around 105 CE) and Polycarp of Smyrna (wrote about 135 CE) quote from it but do not name the source. Wiki  
 
80 CE Justus of Tiberius wrote The Chronology of the Kings of Judah with Succeeded one Another. He was a native of Galilee. His work is not extant, however, they did exist in the ninth century. Photius, the patriarch in Constantinople, expresses surprise that Jesus is not mentioned in this historical work.   "...and being under the Jewish prejudices, as indeed he was himself also a Jew by birth, he makes not the least mention of the appearance of Christ, or what things happened to him, or of the wonderful works that he did…" Photius, Bibliothec, 33rd Code - http://www.mystae.com/restricted/reflections/messiah/sources.html        
c. 80 CE Apocalypse of Abraham written. Claimed to have been written by Abraham. Speaks of destruction of temple   He speaks of Daniel, the 4 great nations of Daniel, perhaps Antiochus II and the destruction of the Temple. He sees the Messiah who is kissed on the face by Azazel (fallen evil angel). This is a probable Christian interpolation. It describes him being insulted, beaten and worshipped. See v.55, 56: Maybe rapture and tribulation v. 61:  http://www.oxleigh.freeserve.co.uk/pt01c.htm Pseudepigrapha      
81 CE   Titus dies. His brother Domitian became Emperor.  There is some persecution under Domitian, which is believed to be what Clement refers to. -http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/1clement.html        
c. 85 CE   Plutarch (46-119 CE), who was a Greek biographer, philosopher and general historical writer, wrote many works from around 70 to the end of his life. Traveled widely. Knew emperors Trajan and Hadrian. Plutarch's religious writings “Daemon of Socrates,” and three later works concerning Delphi, “On the Failure of the Oracles,” in which the decline of the oracle is linked with the decline in the population, “On the E at Delphi,” interpreting the word EI at the temple entrance, and “On the Pythian Responses,” seeking to reestablish belief in the oracle. Contemporary with these is “On Isis and Osiris,” with its mystical tones. “Convivial Questions” (nine books) and “Greek and Roman Questions” assembled a vast collection of antiquarian lore.  Link      
c. 85 CE Cerinthus was the leader of an offshoot of the Ebionites. His teachings were similar but not identical to Gnosticism. His works are not extant and only known from Irenaeus' refutation. Cerinthus is the first recorded person to believe in Docetism (that Jesus only appeared to be human, but did not really have a body of flesh, therefore did not really suffer and die or resurrect).   "Docetism stemmed from the view that flesh and physical matter were evil, or the source of evil. Therefore the Savior could have had no contact with it. All Gnostics, which plagued the early Church, were Docetic." http://www.tecmalta.org/tft320.htm - Actually, there were several types of Gnostism. Probably all Christian Gnostics were docetic.        
c. 86 CE   Quintilian (b.35 - 96 CE) born in Spain and educated in Rome, where his became a leading rhetorical teacher under the emperors Titus and Domitian, retiring probably in 88. Pliny the Younger, and perhaps Tacitus were students. "Quintilian's great work, the Institutio oratoria, in 12 books, was published shortly before the end of his life. He believed that the entire educational process, from infancy onward, was relevant to his major theme of training an orator." http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9062299        
90 CE The Jewish Synod of Jamnia established the Hebrew canon, the modern Protestant Old Testament.  There is some controversy about what the purpose was. Some argue that there was an accepted canon already and it was only debated here. There is no concrete evidence as to the outcome. http://www.ibri.org/13jamnia.html            
90 CE Matthew died natural death according to tradition. Philip was also crucified upside down (allegedly).            
92 CE Clement said to have been elected Bishop of Rome            
98 CE   98 - 117 C.E., Trajan (53 - 117 C.E.) was emperor of Rome.          
100 CE   Beginning of 2nd Century C.E.           
100 CE John may have died at Patmos.  (Eusebius, Irenaeus and Clement of Alexandria agree that John lived into the reign of Trajan, which began in 98.)             
105 CE Clement wrote Clement I. (+/- 20) He was bishop of Rome also called Clement of Rome and Clemens Romanus, was either the third or fourth pope, before or after Anacletus. He is also considered one of the Apostolic Fathers. It mentions that Peter and Paul are already dead. His writings never quote the Gospels, leaving us to believe that the Gospels were not in existence yet. He quotes the OT (a lot) and Paul (5:5; 47:1). He quotes words of Jesus in 13:2, showing he was aware of oral tradition, but he had no written gospel. He should not be confused with Christian apologist Clement of Alexandria, who wrote in 180-200 C.E.   The sayings of Jesus that Clement quotes are from a cluster of versus that make it into Luke 6. There are the same versus that Polycarp seems to know. This supports the idea that there was a small growing collection of sayings floating around. DATE: 1 Clement 23:3  "These things we did hear in the days of our fathers also, and behold we have grown old, and none of these things hath befallen us." - Shows 2nd generation removed. Also shows they thought the parousia would have happened already. Also, a rule of succession" for bishops and deacons who have "fallen asleep" (44:2). This suggests a second century date for 1 Clement.        
110 CE 100 - 110 St. Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, and St. Polycarp, of Smyrna, wrote their epistles in the first decade of the second century (100-110). http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03274a.htm - His letters were added to over the years, making even the real letters unreliable. He mentions things from the gospels and epistles, but never a direct quote. Romans built the first London Bridge across the Thames In his letter to Smyrna, he defends against Docetism. He mentions the virgin birth and, as defense against Docetism, he says that Jesus rose in the Flesh.  http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/srawley/smyrnaeans.html        
113 CE   110 C.E. Pliny the Younger was the first non-Christian to mention Christianity in writing. He says that certain Christians cursed Christ to avoid punishment. He does not say that he knew Christ existed. He only records what some Christians did. He does not mention the resurrection. No non-Christian mentions the resurrection until Lucian, a critic of superstition, mentions it in the mid-2nd century (likely from Christian sources). This may be a forgery, as it was first quoted by Tertullian. See: http://tftb.com/deify/didjesus.htm.   Also, he says of Christians "But I found it was nothing but a bad and excessive superstition.... the sacred rites which had been allowed to lapse are being performed again, and flesh of sacrificed victims is on sale everywhere, though up till recently scarcely anyone could be found to buy it."        
114 CE Epistle of Barnabas was written [could have been written as early as 70 or as late as 131 CE)   He does not quote any NT book. In 4:14 some believe he refers to Mt. 22:14. I don't see it. As I read it, it seems he thought he was in the last days (4:9). Jesus was about to be manifested  unto them in the flash (6:9). Crucifixion is mentioned (7:3,9; 8:5;9:8;11:1,8; 12:1 (compares crucifixion to a tree being bent and rising up again). 15:9 says that Jesus rose from the dead, and after he had appeared ascended unto heaven. That does not sound like the 40 days of Acts. Epistle of Barnabas - show some knowledge of the Gospel events, refers loosely to "the Gospel ", perhaps Gospel. Matthew. It declares (12:31-12:35) that Jesus is NOT the son of David. See Mark 12:35-37, Jesus agreed. Contradicting genealogies. In Mark 12:35-37, Jesus said that David mentioned the Messiah and calls him "lord" not a relative. Jesus was implying that the Messiah may not necessarily come from the seed of David. This may be why Mark and John do not supply a genealogy.  (This is not to be confused with the Gospel of Barnabas that was written in the late 6th century).      
115 CE See Tacitus on Hebrew's Origin and the Jews of His Day at: http://skeptically.org/oldtestament/id8.html 115 C.E., Tacitus, a Roman historian (c. 56 - 117) writes the Annals, in which it describes Nero blaming the Christians for burning Rome. He mentions Christus - not because he was a historical figure, but because this is what the Christians believed in. Some Christians argue that it was originally written anonymous yet we don't question its authorship. This is possible a forgery anyway. See: http://tftb.com/deify/didjesus.htm. It was never quoted until the 15th century, after which, it was quoted incessantly.        
117 CE   Hadrian (January 24, 76 - July 10, 138) become emperor of Rome.          
 CE Flavious Vopiscus said Hadrian said, "There those who worship Serapis are, in fact, Christians, and those who call themselves bishops of Christ are, in fact, devotees of Serapis." Scriptores Historiae Augusti: Quadrigae Tyrannorum--Firmus, Saturninus, Proculus et Bonosus [attributed to Flavius Vopiscus of Syracuse], Chapter 7.6-8.10
http://www.liminalityland.com/historiaaugusta.htm
Flavius Vopiscus of Syracuse was a historian who wrote of the life of Hadrian. He was actually probably invented in the 4th century. In 1889, Hermann Dessau proposed that the six Scriptores - "Aelius Spartianus", "Iulius Capitolinus", "Vulcacius Gallicanus", "Aelius Lampridius", "Trebellius Pollio", and "Flavius Vopiscus" - were all fictitious, and that the work was composed by a single author in the late fourth century. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavius_Vopiscus Pseudepigrapha      
119 CE "Suetonius himself says that Nero showed the utmost indifference, even contempt in regard to religious sects." http://tftb.com/deify/didjesus.htm 119 C.E., Suetonius (75 - 160 C.E.), a Roman writer, records in his Lives of the Caesars (also known as The Twelve Caesars) that some Jews were expelled from Rome in 49 C.E. because the caused disturbances at the instigation of a certain Chrestus. This cannot be Jesus, as it was later than when Jesus was supposedly killed. Also, "Christ's" were a dime a dozen back then. It would be impossible to say which one this one was. Also, his name was not Chrestus. -http://tftb.com/deify/didjesus.htm    1.  "Chrestus" is the correct Latin form of an actual Greek name, and is not obviously a misspelling of "Christus", meaning Christ.
   2. The passage seems to imply that there was actually someone named Chrestus at Rome at the time. This rules out a reference to Jesus.
   3. Even if Suetonius is referring to Christians in Rome, this only confirms the existence of Christians, not the existence of Jesus. There is no doubt that there were Christians in Rome during the first century CE--this of course does NOT imply that Jesus actually lived during the first half of this century.
See link
Link      
c. 120 CE Didakhe (did-a-KAY) was written. This was a manual for Christianity. It's date is not clear some think portions could be earlier and interpolations added later. I feel that the Father, Son and Holy Sprit language place those sections in the 3rd century. Also, it does seem to have knowledge of the gospel of Matthew. Lack of other Gospel knowledge makes me think it is as early as 120 C.E. Author is anonymous, showing that oral tradition is still king, and that NT writings are not considered inspired yet.  Appian (Roman - wrote during a wide range). "His work (Πωμαικα) in twenty-four books, written in Greek, is more a number of monographs than a connected history. It gives an account of various peoples and countries from the earliest times down to their incorporation in complete books and considerable fragments. In spite of its unattractive style, the work is very valuable, especially for the period of the civil wars." - No mention of Jesus The Didache has 24 sayings fragments. - Link   Link #2  
125 CE Papias, Bishop of Phrygian Hierapolis wrote in Greek five books called "Exposition(s) of the Lord's Logia." Could have been as early as 110 C.E or as late as 140 C.E. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papias. He and Irenaeus are the only Church Fathers of the 2nd century to mention that Gospels existed. None of his writings are extant. However, Eusebius paraphrased several of his stories.   The authorship of Mark and Matthew were initially anonymous. The tradition that they were written by said authors began with Papias, and it's one of those I heard from someone, who heard from someone who heard from someone else deals. Eusebius says that Papias said that he heard from a presbyter the following, "Mark, who had been Peter's interpreter, wrote down carefully, but not in order, all that he remembered of the Lord's sayings and doings. For he had not heard the Lord or been one of the followers, but later, as I said, one of Peter's."       1
125 CE Aristides writes his Apology. He compares Christianity with the Greeks, Chaldean' s and Jews. See link He believed in the virgin birth. His view of the resurrection has Jesus immediately ascending to heaven. "But he himself was pierced by the Jews, and he died and was buried; and they say that after three days he rose and ascended to heaven." Link      
125 CE The date of 125 is disputed. P25 (Rayland's Papyrus) In an unknown location in Egypt in 1920 C.E.;, a small scrap of papyri was found (21cm x 20cm) that contains 118 legible letters that can be pieced together as part of John 18:31-33; 37-38 (text on both sides). It's also known as the Rayland's Papyrus. It was designated as P52. It often appears in Christian writings as being dated paleographically at 125 C.E. This is not a fair estimate of its date, which can only be dated within a range of about 100 years +/-. See Link Dating papyri paleographically (by writing style) is not an exact science. Even with a whole manuscript, paleographers would be more honest to say it's within a range of around a hundred years of 125 C.E., but they don't have a whole manuscript - or even a whole page. It is unfair - no, it is frankly dishonest to flat out say this is dated at 125 without making provision for a range of error.  In fact, it's not uncommon to have a range of 300 years when dating a full manuscript that has some history associated with it. It would be nearly impossible to date this scrap that has no history (discovery location unknown, scribes - unknown). It has been dated later by some too: . Nonetheless, even if it were dated early, it would not support that the whole gospel as we know it existed. Link   Link #2  
127 CE   Juvenal - A Roman writer who wrote 16 satires in hexameter. No mention of Jesus          
130 CE Basilides, an early Alexandrian Gnostic. Irenaeus wrote against him in "Contra Haereses", I, xxiv, written about 170 C.E.   http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/basilides.html        
130 CE Secret Gospel of James (a.k.a. Apocryphon) written early to mid 2nd century probably in Egypt. It seems to have knowledge of sayings and parables of Jesus, but no knowledge of the passion. In fact, it states that Jesus was "buried shamefully" -otherwise translated "buried in the sand". Peter and James are told by Jesus to "Remember my cross and my death and you will live." and ""Truly I say to you, none will be saved unless they believe in my cross. But those who have believed in my cross, theirs is the Kingdom of God. " http://www.gnosis.org/naghamm/jam2.html            
130 CE c. 130 the Gospel of the Egyptians is written. It's currently not extant. Fragments are quoted by Clement, Hippolytus, and Epiphanius. Emperor Hadrian outlaws circumcision as bodily mutilation. Also takes steps that reveal the temple will not be restored. Sets up Jewish revolt.          
132 CE Jewish revolt led by Bar Kochba. The revolt will last for a couple of years and cause anti-Jewish sentiment in Rome. Christian writers begin to distance themselves from Jews or write about how they are different.   In 1952 and 1960–61 a number of Bar Kokhba's letters to his lieutenants were discovered in the Judean desert 11 miles from the Qumran site of the Dead Sea Scrolls.  Link   Bar Kokhba. (2005). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved August 23, 2005  
135 CE Naasene Gnostics were later refuted by Hippolytus (c. 200).    The Naassene Fragment is a fragmentary text that survives in no document save a quotation in the early 3rd century encyclopedia of heresies by Hippolytus of Rome, Refutation of All Heresies (5.7.2-9), but may be considered part of the New Testament apocryphal traditions. It is heavily Gnostic in tone, to judge from Hippolytus' quotation, and seems to be a criticism of the more orthodox interpretation of The Trinity, in language reminiscent of the Gospel of John.  Wiki      
135 CE Polycarp (70 - 156 C.E.) Wrote his epistle to the Philippians. He was bishop of Smyna and acquaintance of Ignatius and a big fan of the Apostle Paul.   Some believe that Polycarp is the true author of the Timothy and Titus pastoral epistles. In his letter to the Philippians, he has quotes that are similar to quotes in Matthew. For example, he said that Jesus said, "Blessed are the poor, and they who are persecuted for righteousness' sake, for theirs is the Kingdom of God." Which is similar to the Beatitudes of the  Gospels.        
135 CE Polycarp to the Philippians, this is extant, but may have been the target of redactors. His writings are partially against the teachings of Marcion. His quotes of the sayings of Jesus are similar to the Gospels, but no source is given, which seems to indicate to me that he had some sayings of Jesus or a partial gospels that were not like our canonical ones.   He quotes the same sayings of Jesus that Clement of Rome quotes. Both would later make it into Luke 6. In Polycarp 7:1, he states, "For every one who shall not confess that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh, is antichrist…" Which sounds like he is defending against Gnosticism. What a perfect place to quote John - If the Gospel of John was in existence.        
135 CE   Julius Severus crushes the revolt in Palestine. Final dispersion of the Jews occurs. Jerusalem  razed.          
135 CE Basilides' s Gospel and Exegetica (Treatises). Basilides (c.117 - 138 C.E.) lived in Alexandria, Egypt. He wrote a gospel that was less narrative and more like the sayings of Jesus. He is described as Gnostic. Almost none of his writings are extant.  Irenaeus of Lyons mentions him in his Against heresies. He's also mentioned by Clement of Alexandria and Hippolytus of Rome. Irenaeus and Hippolytus have very different views of his theology, so who knows what can be trusted. Irenaeus claims that he didn't believe Jesus died, but that Simon of Cyrene took his place. Apparently, he also denied the reality of the body of Jesus.            
138 CE   Antoninus Pius (86-161 C.E.) becomes emperor. He was 4th of the 5 good emperors.          
140 CE According to Irenaeus, Pius I, son of Rufinus, becomes leader of the church in Rome (i.e. Pope). His biggest battle was against Gnostic doctrine.            
140 CE c.140, Shepherd of Hermas. This was considered inspired for centuries. It was the first Gospel to gain universal popularity in Christianity. It has at least oral transmission knowledge of the Epistle of James and the Gospels John and one other Gospel and the Book of Revelation. The only book he quotes is an apocryphal Jewish text, the Book of Eldad and Modat. http://home.freeuk.net/jesusmyth/formatn.htm            
143 CE Valentinus (c. 100 - c. 153).  Also called "Valentinius". A Christian Gnostic theologian who founded a school in Rome. He narrowly lost election to be bishop of Rome in 143 C.E. He claimed to be a student of Theudas who was a follower or the Apostle Paul.            
144 CE 144 C.E., Marcion, a wealthy Christian convert, was excommunicated for his beliefs (after a speech he gave in Rome). He rejected the OT and most of the known Christian writings. He only supported 12 Christian writings that are in the NT canon. He started his on movement - later called the Marcionites. This pushed Christian leaders to accelerate establishing a canon and to articulate their beliefs.                   "Marcion [c.100 - c.160 C.E.], unlike some Gnostics, relied more on biblical materials than on Greek philosophy. In particular, he emphasized Paul's teachings [Marcion's version], asserting that the original twelve apostles had misunderstood Christ's message by thinking him to be the messiah prophesied by the Old Testament rather than understanding him to be sent by the true God. Because of this misunderstanding, it was therefore necessary for Paul to receive a special revelation [see 241.] to correct it. " -http://www.christianism.com/articles/3.html.  He did not believe in the virgin birth, that Jesus came in the Flesh or in Hell. http://home.freeuk.net/jesusmyth/formatn.htm        
150 CE Sextus Empiricus was a physician and philosopher. He recorded a very complete account of ancient Greek and Roman skepticism. His writings are extant.   We get much of what we know about Gorgias (5th century BCE Sophist) from his writings.         
c. 150 CE 1 Timothy probably written - perhaps by Polycarp. This is one of the 3 Pastorals: 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy and Titus- None of which are believed to have been written by Paul. If this was written by Paul, it would have Paul mentioning that Jesus was before Pontius Pilate, which would be rare date on the Passion mentioned by Paul (1 Tim. 6:13).    The major reasons (for non-Pauline authorship) include not being quoted until 170 CE by Irenaeus - and that they there are not mentioned in Marcion's canon, and he wanted all of Paul's writings in his canon (144 CE). Also, the writing style is VERY different from Paul's. "...of the 848 words (excluding proper names) found in the Pastorals, 306 are not in the remainder of the Pauline corpus, even including the deutero-Pauline 2 Thessalonians, Colossians, and Ephesians. Of these 306 words, 175 do not occur elsewhere in the New Testament, while 211 are part of the general vocabulary of Christian writers of the second century."   Link      
c. 150 CE c.150 C.E., Pseudepigraphal Gospel of Peter. A document that claimed to be written by Peter. It covers mostly the passion. It does not show the body of Jesus walking around after the crucifixion. It provides a reason that the guards and Pilot did not tell people the tomb was empty. I think people were wondering why the guards never spoke up. cf. Mt.28:15 for bribed Jewish guards     Pseudepigrapha      
c. 150 CE Pseudepigraphal Gospel of James written- also sometimes known as the Infancy Gospel of James or the Protevangelium of James. Described the early life of Virgin Mary with miracles like doves coming out of a rod when Joseph was chosen to be her husband at age of 12..   Gospel of James (a.k.a. Infancy Gospel of James or Protevangelium of James). Claims to be written by James the Just, brother of Jesus. About 130 Greek manuscripts of it survive. Origen thought it was authentic. Pseudepigrapha      
154 CE Anicetus become leader of the church in Rome (i.e., Pope - reigned until c. 168). He had heated debates with Polycarp trying to date the crucifixion. He also told a conflicting story of the martyrdom of Peter.            
155 CE c. 155 C.E., the Gospel of Truth is a Gnostic Gospel that mentions Jesus. It seems to be familiar with Matthew and Paul's epistles. It mentions Christ on the Cross but not the resurrection. A copy was found in 1945, at Nag Hammadi. Some think this could have been written by Valentinus or one of his students.            
c. 160 CE Hegesippus (ca 110 A.D. - ca 180), was the first church historian. "His works are lost, save some passages quoted by Eusebius, who tells us that he wrote Hypomnemata (Memoirs) in five books, in the simplest style concerning the tradition of the Apostolic preaching." - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hegesippus   Eusebius says that he wrote that James the Just never took a bath and never shaved or cut his hair, and he was a vegetarian. He claims that James the Just was stoned to death "shortly after Vespasian besieged Judea" (66 C.E.). They took him up to the summit of the temple, threw him down and he lived. They stoned him them someone hit him in the head with a staff and finished him off.        
c. 160 CE Justin Martyr of Rome writes what is now called Dialogue of Justin in 152 chapters. It includes dislogues with Trypho, in which he defends Christianity to a Jewish friend. Justin converted to Christianity in 130 C.E.. He wrote cir.145-165. He wrote other works around 145.  He's martyred in 165 C.E.. From: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08580c.htm -  Justin Martyr was a second-century Church leader, and there is a place in his writing where he tried to prove the credibility of belief in Jesus Christ as a virgin-born son of God on the grounds that this was widely believed in the religions that were practiced by the people in the Roman empire. In his first "Apology," Vol. 1, Chap. 22, p. 69 in the Reeves edition.  "By declaring the Logos the first-begotten of God, our master, Jesus Christ, to be born of a virgin without any human mixture, we Christians say no more in this than what you pagans say of those whom you style the sons of Jove. For you need not be told what a parcel of sons the writers most in vogue among you assign to Jove. " - From: http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/farrell_till/horner-till/till1.html - Int the Dialogue with Trypho, he recounts that Jesus was born in a cave outside of Bethlehem.     Justin uses 71 sayings in his two writings in ~145 and ~160. There is still no evidence that the Gospels as we know them are completed.

    "Some churches decided to harmonize this vast gospel array. Quotations from these harmonies appear in Second Clement (mid second century CE: Koester p. 360) and Justin Martyr (150-160 CE: ibid. pp. 36, 366-7, 374-5). Matthew and Luke unsurprisingly form the backbone of these harmonies, but other gospels (Thomas, Hebrews, Egyptians) were used on occasion. Justin Martyr's harmony is the one that bears independent witness to Mark:

    If your right eye (Matt 5:29) scandalizes you, pluck it out and throw it (Matt 5:29, 18:9) from you, for it is better to enter the kingdom (Mark 9:47) with one eye (Mark 9:47=Matt 18:9) than to be cast with two eyes into the fire (Mark 9:48=Matt 18:9)

Justin, First Apology 15:2" - 
Link 1   Link 2  
c. 160 CE 160 C.E., Acts of Paul and Thecla proposed writing of Paul that later turned out to be written by a presbyter of Asia. It was often quoted by Church Fathers. It speaks highly of the value of staying a virgin. It's the story of Thecla, a woman who is taught by Paul. Fantastic miracles occur such as he is burned alive unharmed.      Pseudepigrapha      
c. 160 CE  Epistle of the Apostles is a work found in a Coptic MS of the 4th or 5th century in Cairo and a complete MS in Ethiopic from the 5th century. It is not quoted by any church father.   It says, v5 "They are the symbol of our faith in the Lord of the Christians (in the great Christendom), even in the Father, the Lord Almighty, and in Jesus Christ our redeemer, in the Holy Ghost the comforter, in the holy church, and in the remission of sins." - Which makes me think it was written later than 160, but I'm not sure. Pseudepigrapha      
161 CE   Marcus Aurelius (121 - 180) became emperor.          
c. 165 CE c. 160 - 170, Theodotus, who was a Gnostic teacher, wrote "Extracts from Theodotus", which has Gnostic Christian thought.   I've read that he mentions John in connection with text from the Gospel of John, but the only reference to John I saw was to John the Baptist. He mentions the Father, Son and Holy Spirit and he mentions "against Tatian", which makes me wonder if this should not be dated later near the end of the 2nd century.        
170 CE 170 C.E., Dionysius Bishop of Corinth says, "As the brethren desired me to write epistles, I wrote. And these epistles the apostles of the devil have filled with tares, cutting out some things and adding others. For them a woe is reserved. It is, therefore, not to be wondered  at if some have attempted to adulterate the Lord's writings also,  19  since they have formed designs even against writings which are of less account." -  Eusebius Church History 4. 23.12.            
170 CE 170 C.E., the Muratorian fragment was created. This is the earliest canon ever found (discovered in 1740). It has the Shepherd of Hermas as accepted. http://www.bible-researcher.com/muratorian.html   All 4 gospels accounted for by their current names. This does not mean the text is as we know it today. There are very few manuscript fragments from the 2nd century at all.        
170 CE Tatian (120 - 185 C.E.), who was a pupil of Justin Martyr and previously an educated pagan, admits "he was working on a new gospel that would summarize all the other ones, thereby implying that Christians were still writing and rewriting gospels based on their own assumptions and preferences." http://www.scaruffi.com/politics/jesus.html            
175 CE Tatian composes a harmonized Gospel from the 4 and translates them into a Syrian translation. This became known as the Diatessaron of Tatian. He was a convert of Justin Martyr. He leaves out the genealogies, presumably because they are impossible to harmonize.   We have no idea what this looked like or how complete it was to current canonical manuscripts. The earliest copy of the Diatessaron of Tatian comes from around 900 C.E. http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/diatessaron.html        
175 CE c. 175 - 185, Irenaeus of Lyons (lived 130 - 202 C.E.) wrote his Against Heresies. In Against Heresies II:22:5,  Irenaeus claims an *apostolic tradition*, barely a century after the ministry of the apostles (and less, in the case of John), that claims that Jesus was more than 50 years of age at His death. I don't think he meant that. It doesn't seem consistent. I think he meant that Jesus' humanity identified with people of all ages. That he was between the ages of 30 and 50 because he was 33 when he died. I could be wrong though.   Irenaeus presents only 135 sayings of Jesus, some are quoted from Justin Martyr, the Didache and Barnabas. Most of the sayings that he comes up with are for the purpose of proving that the Gnostics are wrong. I believe that accusations of non-believers and divergent groups are what lead to late redactors creating the finished Gospels as we know them. I think Mark was created first, then Matthew went about correcting and embellishing the Mark document.        
177 CE 177 C.E., Athenagoras of Athens began writing. He wrote Apology or Embassy for the Christians and later a Treatise on the Resurrection. He was allegedly less known and less quoted and not mentioned by Eusebius. He puts forth a theory of the Trinity in a writing to  emperor Marcus Aurelius called Defense of the Christians. He quotes a mishmash of  phrases from the Epistles of Paul's and Gospels that seem to show that his Gospel source may have been something like the Diatessaron. He also supposedly quotes the pseudo-Sibyllines, but while I've found him mention the Sibyles (http://www.ccel.org/fathers2/ANF-02/anf02-46.htm#P2141_587131), I cannot find the quote he mentions.            
177 CE Irenaeus composes a document that describes the persecutions in Lyons. In it, he quotes various NT books without naming them.            
178 CE 178 C.E., Celsus, who was an opponent to Christianity (His wrote: The True Word (or account), which is quoted almost entirely in a defense by Origen 70 years after it was written (no longer extant). He also claimed that Mary was divorced from Joseph for as an adulteress and that her real husband was a soldier named Pantheras. There are no extant writings of Celsus, but nearly all of it is quoted in Origen's (c.185 - 254 C.E.) answer to his accounts in Origen's Contra Celsum of 248 C.E. He made claims that the Gospels were altered to harmonize them.            
180 CE Irenaeus (125 - c. 202), Catholic theologian, wrote Against Heresies in an attempt to fight the spread of Gnosticism. In it, he quotes nearly every NT book, showing that by now, there was a general accepted canon - though nothing was official.            
180 CE c.180 C.E., pseudo-Sibylline documents appear. There are 12 books. Book VI is purely Christian, and came into being later. Books VII and VIII are predominantly Christian. In book VIII, the famous acrostic occurs, which, according to Eusebius, Constantine quoted "Jesus Christ Son of God Savior Cross". From: http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/sibylline.html. - Theses documents are important because they are widely quoted by the early church fathers (like Justin Martyr) for the purpose of convincing pagans and others that Christianity was true. Unfortunately, the documents were forgeries.            
180 CE Theophilus at Antioch is the second person to mention the Trinity (the first was Athenagoras). He wrote books against Marcion and other heretics. He treats Tatian's Gospels as inspired. He also created a harmonized Gospel. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14625a.htm            
180 CE Sophia of Jesus Christ, a Simi Gnostic writing.   The date range for this is 50 -200. I put it late because of the phrase "Then Bartholomew said to him: "How (is it that) <he> was designated in the Gospel 'Man' and 'Son of Man'? " - The document starts by saying that Jesus appeared to them on a mountain called "Divination and Joy". It says, " the Savior appeared - not in his previous form, but in the invisible spirit." Link      
190 CE Clement of Alexandria (150 - 215 C.E). This Christian apologist wrote from 180 - 200 in Alexandria and died in Jerusalem. He quotes other gospels that did not make the canon and which are mostly extinct. He considered Plato inspired by God. He quotes Gospel of Hebrews, gospel of the Egyptians, Traditions of Matthias, Preachings of Peter, Epistle of Barnabas, the Didache, Shepherd of Hermas and the Apocalypse of Peter. See http://www.ntcanon.org/Clement.shtml#Gospel_of_the_Egyptians            
192 CE anti-Montanist treatise was written. It was the first time the term "New Testament" was used. The development of a NT canon was being pushed to combat "heresy". Eusebius is the source of this data.            
193 CE   Septimius Severus (b.146 - d. 211) became emperor of Rome. He reigned from 193 - 211 CE. He allowed already existing laws against Christians to be enforced, resulting in their persecution. This may have been the end of Tertullian. This is the beginning of the Severan dynasty (193 - 235)        
197 CE Tertullian c.160-220 C.E.), wrote c.197   Tertullian tells his readers, "Consult your sources; you will find there that Nero was the first who assailed with the sword the Christian sect" (Apol 5); but he makes no mention of Christians setting Rome on fire. If Tertullian had read Tacitus (which seems very probable), we would have to assume this information was probably not yet present. Other ancient historians also refer to Nero's persecution of Christians (Suetonius, Dio Cassius, Pliny the Elder), but none of these associates the persecution of Christians with the burning of Rome.  Link      
200 CE   Beginning of 3rd Century C.E.    World Population about 190 Million      
200 CE Date that Papyrus 66 may have been deposited in Egypt. It is a near complete text of John. It does not have the pericope of the Adulterous woman.            
200 CE              
205 CE   Dio Cassius (155 - 230) wrote in Greek about Roman history in eight volumes covering 983 years. The 6th volume covered 9 - 54 C.E.           
210 CE Codification of Jewish oral law (Mishnah) completed.   The "oral law" of the Jews was redacted into writing. This writing is the Mishnah. The contents of the Mishnah were debated for a many years prior.  Wiki      
211 CE   Caracalla becomes Roman Emperor (reigned 211 - 217).  He was the eldest son of Septimius Severus.          
212 CE Hippolytus of Rome was the most prolific theological writer pre-Constantinian, but many of his works were destroyed. He mentions the existence of the Gospel of the Egyptians (now extinct), a gospel that endorses sexual abstinence.             
217 CE   Marcus Opellius Macrinus becomes Roman Emperor (reigned 217 - 218)          
218 CE   Elagabalus becomes Roman Emperor (reigned 218 - 222) Also known as Heliogabalus. He was born as Varius Avitus Bassianu and was also known as Marcus Aurelius Antoninus     Wiki  
222 CE   Alexander Severus becomes Roman Emperor (reigned 222 - 235 CE)          
225 CE James was probably written. It could have been earlier, but not by much. Origen is the first person to quote James.            
c. 225 CE Date that Papyrus 75 may have been deposited in Egypt. It contained two Gospels, Luke and John. Notable is the fact that the pericope of the Adulterous woman is NOT present. Included with the find was the Infancy Gospel of James, fragments of the Melito of Sardis. The Vision of Dortheus and other material.          
225 CE 2nd Peter was probably written (could have been a little earlier but not much)   The first time 2nd Peter was mentioned was by Origen. He said, "And Peter, on whom the Church of Christ is built, 'against which the gates of hell shall not prevail' (Matt. 16:18), has left one acknowledged Epistle; possibly also a second, but this is disputed." Eusebius on Origen  6.25.8-  Link      
 CE              
230 CE 230 C.E., Origen (aka Origen's Adamantius aka Origenes\) was ordained. He was a prolific theological writer. He lived c. 185 - 254 C.E. Born of Christian parents. Father was killed during reign of Septimius Severus.   He noticed that there had been a lot of tampering with scripture between the Greek and Hebrew and said, "forsooth, when we notice such things, we are forthwith to reject as spurious the copies in use in our Churches, and enjoin the brotherhood to put away the sacred books current among them, and to coax the Jews, and persuade them to give us copies which shall be untampered with, and free from forgery!  :  - Created the Hexpala - which was the Bible in 6 translations. It did not survive. Link      
235 CE   A period of crisis for the Roman Empire (235 - 284). There were at least 25 Emperors during this period. They were mostly military leaders. He who controlled the troops, controlled Rome.          
236 CE Fabian becomes Pope (bishop of Rome).            
248 CE 248 C.E., Cyprian is chosen Bishop of Carthage. His full name was Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus. He allegedly did a lot of writing, however, his name was also used in several Pseudographs bearing his name. Perhaps most notoriously, Erasmus (organizer of the textus receptus in 1516) claimed to have translated his work: De duplici martyrio. However, I've yet to find anyone who does not believe that Erasmus wrote this work and put Cyprian's name on it. If he forged a major patristic work, how can we trust his work with the textus receptus?       Click here to see a map of Ancient Carthage    
249 CE Cyprian becomes bishop of Carthage. He was also called Caecilius. His original name was Thascius. Decius becomes Emperor of Rome (249 - 251). During Decius' reign, he would fight the Goths.         
250 CE According to Christians of the time, emperor Decian persecuted Christians in efforts to restore Roman state religions. Pope Fabian is said to have been martyred.            
250 CE Around 250 CE, Papyrus 45 (P45 or P. Chester Beatty I ) was deposited some place in Egypt. "The papyrus was bound in a codex, which may have consisted of 220 pages, however only 30 survive (two of Matthew, six of Mark, seven of Luke, two of John, and 13 of Acts)." Does not include the pericope of the adulterous woman, but the fragments of John that are included are John 4-5 and 10-11 (not 7-8). So, it cannot be determined wheter it is missing. This is the earliest manuscript. Note, it is not an original manuscript. It is a copy of a copy. Wiki      
251 CE Novatian, a Roman priest, opposed the election of Pope Cornelius after the assassination of Pope Fabian. Novatian founded an order that refused to let baptized Christians back into the church if they had performed ritual sacrifice to pagan god (because of the pressures of persecution sanctioned by Emperor Decius in 250 CE). This was during the height of the Antonine Plague, which was taking lives at a rate of 5,000 per day in Rome. The plague was worst between 251 and 266 CE. After Rome was sacked, Cyril of Alexandria (Pope of Alexandria) had all of the Novatian churches closed.        
253 CE   Valerian becomes Emperor of Rome (from 253 to 260 CE). He would fight the Goths and have his legionaries killed in great number by the plague.          
254 CE Stephen I becomes Pope of Rom (Bishop of Rome).            
256 CE A new Christian persecution begins in Rome under orders from Valerian.            
268 CE Sabellius of Rome was deposed for his Christology, which was Modal Monarchism or Oneness (as it's called today). Hippolytus knew Sabellius personally and mentioned him in the Philosophumena. He knew Sabellius disliked Trinitarian theology, yet he called Modal Monarchism the heresy of Noetos. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sabellianism            
274 CE   Aurelian, Roman emperor from 270 - 275,  The worship of Sol Invictus, the Sun God, became so popular that Aurelian in 274 gave official sanction to December 25th as the birthday of that God.          
280 CE Porphyry of Tyros, a pagan in Rome who wrote Adversus Christianas ("Against the Christians") in 15 books, only fragments remain. He claimed that he could prove that the book of Daniel was written during the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes (175 - 163 BC),   Jerome, translator of the Vulgate, replied to his charges in his Commentary on Daniel. "Counter-treatises were written by Eusebius of Caesarea, Apollinarius (or Apollinaris) of Laodicea, Methodius of Olympus, and Macarius of Magnesia, but all these are lost."  Wiki      
300 CE   Beginning of 4th Century C.E.           
303 CE 303 C.E., Emperor Diocletian's first Edict against the Christians (24 February, 303).  From: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08736a.htm            
303 CE 303 C.E. (though 311), Lactantius (Church Father) began writing The Divine Institutions. They would consist of multiple books. In them, he quotes Sibylline prophecies to convince pagans of Christianities truths. The Sibyls (called pseudo Sibyllines) were forged documents written by Christians. From: Forgery in Christianity by Joseph Wheless, p.37.   He uses the begotten quote for Matthew 3:17 versus the "This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased" he uses "Thou art my Son, to-day have I begotten Thee." See 167:  Justin also uses 'begotten" in his dialog.  http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/e-catena/matthew3.html Lactantius tutored Constantine's son in 317 CE.      
306 CE   306 C.E., Constantine took his father's position as one of the four Roman Emperors, after being named Augustus by his army generals. After warring with rivals, he became sole Emperor in 323 C.E..           
312 CE 312 C.E., Constantine converts to Christianity after the battle with Maxentius at the Milvian bridge. From: http://www.ga.k12.pa.us/academics/MS/8th/romanhis/constant.htm            
313 CE Eusebius is made Bishop of Caesarea, succeeding Agapius.            
317 CE Lactantius came out of retirement to tutor the emperor Constantine's son Crispus, at Trier.  See 303 CE.            
323 CE Arius is condemned in a synod at Alexandria in September for his doctrine of "Homoousian" (that Jesus was not of the same substance as the Father), and whatever the substance was, it was inferior to the Father.   In October, Eusebius of Nicomedia (not to be confused with historican, Eusebius of Caesarea) comes to the defense of Arius. He has his own synod at Bithynia for the purpose of nullifying Arius' excommunication. Later, Eusebius of Nicomedia will be the leader of an Arian group that will be called the "Eusebians." To which, he will convert emperor Constantius.         
324 CE   Beginning of the Byzantine Age (324 - 640 CE)          
325 CE 325 C.E., Council of Nicaea, sanctions the 4 Gospels, saying all others are false. Presided by Eusebius. Statements against Arianism (that Jesus was created and inferior), and development of Necaen Creed, which defined the Trinity.            
326 CE Eusebius Pampilus (born 260 - died before 341 C.E.)  (also called Eusebius of Caesarea) finished The Church History. He finished his other major work, The Chronicle (universal history), shortly before he finished the Church History. He is Bishop of Caesarea. He was in direct communication with Constantine for the purpose of creating Christianity as the State Religion. Much of Eusebius' work may have been at the bidding of Constantine, including the preparation of 50 complete Bibles in Greek for the churches of Constantinople. This may be the source of Codex Sinaiticus. He is first to quote the interpolation of Josephus about Jesus. Many believe he is the author. It is said that Eusebius knew almost nothing of the Western Church. "Eusebius is also infamous for saying that it was necessary to lie for the cause of Christianity. In his Praeparatio Evangelica 12.31, listing the ideas Plato supposedly got from Moses, he includes the idea:"
    "That it is necessary sometimes to use falsehood as a medicine for those who need such an approach. [As said in Plato's Laws 663e by the Athenian:] 'And even the lawmaker who is of little use, if even this is not as he considered it, and as just now the application of logic held it, if he dared lie to young men for a good reason, then can't he lie? For falsehood is something even more useful than the above, and sometimes even more able to bring it about that everyone willingly keeps to all justice.' [then by Clinias:] 'Truth is beautiful, stranger, and steadfast. But to persuade people of it is not easy.' You would find many things of this sort being used even in the Hebrew scriptures, such as concerning God being jealous or falling asleep or getting angry or being subject to some other human passions, for the benefit of those who need such an approach. "
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337 CE   Flavius Julius Constantius becomes Roman emperor and will reign until 361. He was the son of Constantine the Great and his first wife Fausta.        
350 CE 350 C.E. (or as late as 370 C.E.), the Codex Sinaiticus was produced in St. Catherine's Monastery at the foot of Mt.Sinai.  It is an Uncial (un SEE al) manuscript (all capitals) that contained nearly the entire NT. From: http://www.cob-net.org/compare_uncials.htm            
353 CE   Emperor Constantius passed a law that all pagan Temple must be closed under penalty of death (though death penalty not rigorously pursued) Constantius was a Christian Arian and amateur theologian. He drove Athanasius from Alexandria because of doctrinal conflict.        
361 CE   Flavius Claudius Iulianus aka Julian the Apostate becomes Roman Emperor (reigned from 361 - 363)          
363 CE   Jovian becomes Emperor at the death of Julian. He was a Christian emperor, and he ordered the pagan library in Antioch to be burnt. Jovian may have been a proponent of Arianism.         
364 CE   Valentinian I becomes Emperor and names his brother, Valens, co-Emperor. Valentinian was a Christian but he allowed people to practice any religion they wanted. However, he did not permit any of the black arts like witchcraft or fortune telling. His 2nd wife, Justina, was an adamant Arian.        
364 CE   Valens (Flavius Iulius Valens) co-reigned as Roman Emperor with his brother Valentinian I.          
367 CE Saint Epiphanius of Constantia became Bishop of Canstantia (Salamis) in Cyprus. He spent the rest of his life there campaigning against heretics. He thought Origen was a heretic.             
372 CE   Christian emperor, Valens, ordered the burning of all non Christian books in Antioch.          
374 CE Ambrose becomes bisop of Milan (main city of Northern Italy). He is considered one of the four Doctors of the West (a theologian who greatly influenced the whole Christian Church). He was pressed into office at the death of bishop Auxentius with yet no formal theological training.    This was during a time when the controversy between Arians and Trinitarians was still strong. Ambrose was rather neutral (or ignorant of the details) before being bishop, and was not yet trained in theology when made bishop. He was educated in Rome in literature, law and rhetoric. Ambrose would adopt the Trinitarian view and would debate with Arians for much of his career.         
c. 375 CE Epiphanius writes the Panarion, which was an account of 80 heresies and their refutations. Gratian (Flavius Gratianus Augustus) became Emperor. He was the son of Valentinian I.       Epiphanius of Constantia, Saint. (2005). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved August 23, 2005  
380 CE Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire under the reign of Theodosius I.            
384 CE Empress Justina, 2nd wife of Roman Emperor Valentinian I (reigned 364 - 375) tried to get Bishop Ambrose to let her use two churches in Milan for the followers of Arianism. He refused.            
384 CE 384 C.E., The Latin Vulgate was finished by Jerome. From: http://www.ntcanon.org/Vulgate.shtml - The Vulgate is the version of the Latin Bible, primarily translated from Hebrew and Greek by St. Jerome, used by the Roman Catholic Church for more than 1000 years.    In 382 Pope Damasus commissioned Jerome, the leading biblical scholar of his day, to produce an acceptable Latin translation of the Bible from the several divergent translations then in use. His revised Latin translation of the Gospels was delivered to the Pope in 384. Using the Septuagint Greek version of the Old Testament, he produced new Latin translations of the Psalms (the Gallican Psalter), the Book of Job, and some other books. Later, he decided the Septuagint was unsatisfactory and began translating the entire Old Testament from the original Hebrew, completing it ~405. The remainder of the New Testament was from older Latin versions, perhaps slightly revised by Jerome.        
391 CE Perhaps the greatest single intellectual loss of the classical world was the destruction of the library of Alexandria. At one time, it was reputed to house about 700,000 books on subjects ranging from literature and history to science and philosophy. In the year 391, the bishop of Alexandria, Theophilus (d.412), in his quest to destroy paganism, lead a group of crazed monks and laymen, destroyed all the books in the great library. http://www.geocities.com/paulntobin/bookburn.html The Alexandrian library may have had more that a million scrolls at its peak. "No other great libraries were spared by the Christians. Up to the fifth century many Greco Roman cities had libraries which housed more than 100,000 books. These were all destroyed by the Christians. Pope Gregory The Great (c.540-604) was the person responsible for destroying the last collection of older Roman works in the city" Carl Sagan once said on his TV series Cosmos that if he could go back to any time on earth, he would chose to go back to the time when the Alexandrian library was at its peak.      
396 CE Aurelius Augustinus, Augustine of Hippo, or Saint Augustine was made coadjutor biship of Hippo.   Hippo Regius is the ancient name of the modern city of Annaba (or Bône), Algeria.        
397 CE Augustine of Hippo, or Saint Augustine (November 13, 354 – August 28, 430) wrote his Confessions.   Said to be the last of the classical writers. Very influenced by Greek thinkers, especially Aristotle.         
398 CE Saint John Chrysostom (347 - 407 CE) was called to Constantinople to be archbishop. He would later be diposed because he preached against the evils of wealth and the need to help the poor (over simplified).    John Chrysostom was a prolific writer and  a better speaker. However, his writings are more homiletic than exegetical and are probably of little interest to me for historical study.        
400 CE   Beginning of 5th Century C.E.           
402 CE Sulpicius Severus wrote Chronica 2 Vol. Sacred Histories from creation until 400 CE. However, he omits the Gospels for some reason. In Sacred History, 2.29, he mentions Nero blaming the Christians. He mentions Paul being beheaded and Peter being crucified. He states it in such a way as if it were urban legend (in my opinion).  This is the first mention of Nero blaming the fire of Rome on the Christians by a Christian writer. I wonder if this is not the source of the legend and it was later interpolated in the  Annals of Tacitus.        
410 CE With a vacuum of Roman power, Europe is controlled by the Church under then banner of Christendom. Rome is sacked by Alaric the Visigoth. Alaric was a Christian. Specifically, he was an Arian. For this reason, he did not damage the churches. See http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-26710 This had an enormous impact on Europe, as Rome kind of held things together. This sets the stage for the Dark Ages. The Germanic triebes that migrated into southern Europe were forcibly converted to Christianity.        
410 CE   Beginning of the Middle Ages, which lasted until the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire in the 15th century.          
412 CE Cyril of Alexandria became the Pope of Alexandria (at the death of Theophilus)  when the city was at its height in influence and power within the Roman Empire.   At this time, there was a lot of controversy between Christians, Jews and Pagans, which often erupted in violence in the city. Cyril expelled all Jews from the city and closed the churches of the Novatians.        
423 CE Theodoret becomes bishop of Cyrus (Cyrrhus) and remain so until his death in 457 CE.            
428 CE Nestorius becomes Archbishop of Constantinople (until June 431).   Due to Nestorius' belief in the separation of the humanity and divinity of Jesus, he did not allow the use of the term "Mother of God" in reference to Mary. Instead, he insisted on "Mother of Christ".        
431 CE 431 C.E., Council of Ephesus sanctions that the divine nature of Jesus was superior to his human nature Denounced teachings of Nestorius.   Nestorianism taught that Jesus existed as two persons: The human Jesus and the Son of God or Logos, rather than a unified person. This put him at odds with Cyril of Alexandria. At this council, Mary was called "Theotokos" - bearer of God. This began the doctrine that Mary could be called the Mother of God.      
447 CE   Attila the Hun battles the remaining Roman army near the river Vid (now in Bulgaria). Attila wins, with heavy losess. Rome begins paying tribute to Attila the Hun.          
451 CE   Battle of Chalons. Attila the Hun and his alliance battled the Roman general Flavius Aetius and the Visigothic King Theodoric I.  The Roman alliance won. Attila's threat eventually faded into history. This was a major point for western history. A win by Attila could have caused the complete decimation of western religion and culture.          
451 CE 451 C.E., Council of Calcedonia accepted Pope Leone I's theory that Jesus was both human and divine.            
500 CE   Beginning of 6th Century C.E.           
c.500 CE Procopius of Gaza (465 - 528 C.E.), a Christian sophist and writer. Mentions Justin Martyr has a work on the resurrection.            
c. 500 CE   The period of 500-800 is referred to as the Dark Ages of western European history. There was no Roman emperor in the West, and the period is marked by frequent warfare and almost no urban life. The Middle Ages includes the period of the Dark Ages and runs to the beginning of the Renaissance (variously interpreted as beginning sometime between the 13th and 15th century). Apparently, some take offense to the term "dark ages" (probably Catholics). Thus, it is often just called early middle ages. Otherwise, the dark ages extend from about 500 to 1000.        
527 CE Scythian monk Dionysius Exiguus introduces the convention of dating events "Anno Domini." He used this term to mark dates in a table he created to show information about the calendar dates for Easter. It was later used to in both the Julian and finally Gregorian calendar in 1582.   Latin: "In the Year of the Lord"        
570 c. CE The 12th day Rabi al-Awwal marks the celebration of Muhammad’s birth in 570 C.E. He is said to have died June 8, 632 in Madina. Muhammad is said to have been born in the city of Mecca in Arabia. He is the founder of the Muslim religion (Muslims prefer "restorer" of their faith vs "founder").          
c. 590 CE Gregory of Tours in his Transitus Mariae mentions the Assumption of Mary. This is the beginning of the doctrine. The story that contains the mention is fanciful and full of absurd magic that was later condemned as false.   It was first called the "dormition" or the "falling asleep" of Mary in the Eastern Church. It spread to the Western Church by the 13th century, where it became known as the "Feast of the Assumption."        
600 CE   Beginning of 7th Century C.E.           
610 CE According to Islamic tradition, while Muhammad was in a cave, he received his first vision from God (during the month of Ramadan).            
613 CE Muhammad begins publically preaching his ideas. Muhammad proclaimed himself a prophet, as he claimed, similar to as Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, Jesus, and other prophets          
617 CE Bishop Paul of Tella creates the Syriac translation of the Septuagint.            
622 CE Hijra occurred (Muhammad and his followers go to Madina) was designated the first year of the Islamic calendar (Designated by Umar in 638).            
632 CE Muhammad is said to have died June 8, 632 in Madina.            
700 CE   Beginning of 8th Century C.E.           
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800 CE   Beginning of 9th Century C.E.           
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900 CE   Beginning of 10th Century C.E.           
935 CE The Aleppo Codex was created (Masoretic Text). This is the earliest complete manuscript of the OT that existed - until the discovery of the Dead Sea scrolls. It was named after the city of Aleppo, Syria, where it was found. In 1947, Muslim anti-Jewish riots vandalized the synagogue where it was kept and either destroyed or stole a third of the Codex. The entire codex was taken, but it resurfaced in 1958.            
1000 CE   Beginning of 11th Century C.E.           
1010 CE The Leningrad Codex was written. This is the oldest extant complete Hebrew manuscript of the OT in existence. http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/wsrp/educational_site/biblical_manuscripts/LeningradCodex.shtml            
c. 1040 CE Rabbi Isaac ibn Yashush (died 1056) was dubbed "Isaac the blunderer" because he pointed out that Moses could not have described Edomite kings as reigned before any king reigned of the Israelites (Gen. 36:31), since in Moses time there was no way of knowing that Israel would one day have a king.            
1095 CE The first Christian Crusades began against the Muslims in Jerusalem by a peasant army promised indulgences (permission to sin).   In 1095, Pope Urban II (c1042-1099) proclaimed the First Crusade (1095-1099) at the Council of Clermont. One of the main objective of this crusade was to secure the free access to Jerusalem for Christian pilgrims.  Link      
1100 CE   Beginning of 12th Century C.E.           
1100 CE       World Population about 301 million.      
1109 CE First crusade concludes. http://www.geocities.com/paulntobin/crusades.html http://www.geocities.com/paulntobin/bookburn.html          
c. 1140 C.E CE Rabbi Ibn Ezra saw a problem with Deuteronomy 1:1, which refers to the territory east of the Jordan as the other side of the Jordan. Obviously, this passage was written from the perspective of someone on the western side of the Jordan (Canaan) yet Moses died east of the Jordan, having never reached Canaan. http://skeptically.org/oldtestament/id6.html            
1200 CE   Beginning of 13th Century          
1200 CE       World Population about 360 million.      
1250 CE       World Population about 400 million.      
1256 CE Thomas Aquinas (c.1225 - 1274), one of the 33 "doctors of the church", got his Doctor of Theology.            
1265 CE Thomas Aquinas begins his massive writing called The Summa Theologica. He continued working on this until his death in 1274.            
1300 CE   Beginning of 14th Century C.E.           
1300 CE   This is generally agreed to be about the beginning of the Renaissance and the end of the middle ages. The papacy has less and less power from here.   World Population about 360 million.      
c. 1310 CE The Divine Comedy written (Italian La Divina Commedia) by Dante Alighieri. Three major sections Inferno, Purgatory and Paradise.             
1347 CE The plague had a dramatic affect on Europe's social structure and on the Roman Catholic Church.  Beginning of The Black Death (aka Black Plague) bubonic plague killed nearly 2/3rds of Europe's population. At least 75 million people died.   Wiki      
1378 CE John Wycliffe, who studied Theology at Oxford, denounced the Pope after the Pop issued a "Bull" condemning in 18 these the writings of Wycliffe.             
1400 CE   Beginning of 15th Century C.E.           
1400 CE       World Population about 350 million.      
1414 CE Spanish Inquisition, meant to root out relapsed converts (who went back to Islam and Judaism). At least 13,000 people were killed.     Link      
1452 CE   Leonardo da Vinci was born in Anchiano near Vinci, Republic of Florence [now in Italy, which was not unified like it is today]          
1455 CE   Gutenberg invents movable type          
1464 CE   At the age of 12,  Leonardo da Vinci moved to Florence with this Father and became an apprentice of Andrea del Verrocchio. He learned to prepare canvases, make brushes and how to grind and mix paint. He also learned to sculpt. Some believe that Leonardo was commissioned to take the existing Shourd of Turin and make a better one using old cloth captured during the crusades. The image on the Shoud looks like his self portrait. He had the painting ability. His last painting had no brush strokes and looked like it had been airbrushed.        
1486 CE The Malleus Malificarum (The Hammer of the Witches) is published as an influential guidebook to identifying witches and bringing them to punishment.            
1487 CE The Christian Inquisition began in Europe and lasted until around 1782. Suspected witches were hunted and killed. It has been estimated that 2 million people were killed as witches.     Link      
1488 CE Pope Innocent VIII accepted the gift of 100 slaves from King Ferdinand of Spain, and distributed those slaves to his cardinals and the Roman nobility   From Wiki Wiki      
1492 CE   Columbus sails to America          
1493 CE The Nuremburg Chronicle of the World depicts the creation of the earth with seven concentric circles.   The Chronicle represents royal ancestry with portraits interconnected with vines to indicate marriage and parenthood, thereby participating in a broader tradition that associates genetic lineage and arboreal growth.   Link      
1500 CE   Beginning of 16th Century C.E.           
1514 CE   Initial appearance of the heliocentric theory of Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543), stating that the planets revolved around the sun and the sun was the center of the universe. Heliocentric versus geocentric        
1516 CE Daniel Bomberg published a text of the Old Testament under the name "First Rabbinic Bible." He produced the editio princeps of the Mikraot Gedolot, the Rabbinic Bible, consisting of the Hebrew text plus rabbinical commentaries, between 1516 and 1517, and the first complete Talmud, between 1520 and 1523.            
1516 CE 1516 C.E., Erasmus (1466 - July 12, 1536 C.E.) collects and examines numerous manuscripts to create a unified edition that would later be called the "textus receptus". From this, the KJV would be created into English.   See Byzantine Text Wiki      
1517 CE 1517 C.E., on October 31, Martin Luther nailed the 95 These to the door of the castle's Church of All Saints (the University's customary notice board). However, he also said - 73. "What harm would it do, if a man told a good strong lie for the sake of the good and for the Christian church [...]a lie out of necessity, a useful lie, a helpful lie, such lies would not be against God, he would accept them.   Martin Luther cited by his secretary, in a letter in Max Lenz, ed., Briefwechsel Landgraf Phillips des Grossmüthigen von Hessen mit Bucer, vol. I. " - Link      
1545 CE 1545 C.E. Council of Trent, regarding the Canon, declares Latin Vulgate authentic and practically infallible. It was not permitted for a Catholic to question the inspiration of the scriptures.   In dispute at the Council of Trent were Hebrews, James, 2nd and 3rd John, Jude and Revelation. Also the last section of Mark 16:9-20, Luke 22:43,44 and John 7:53, 8:11. There was grave concern that these were all forgeries and interpolations.        
1553 CE John Calvin had Michael Servetus burned at the stake for not believing in the Trinity or infant baptism.   Servetus also proposed a radical new theory concerning the pulmonary circulation of the blood Link      
1562 CE When the Spanish conquered Mexico,- "After the conquest, the Christian bishop of Yucatan, Diego de Landa, ordered the destruction of all extant Mayan codices in 1562. The bishop was convinced of the rightness of his actions, as we can see from what he wrote: "We found a large number of books ... and they contained nothing in which there was not to be seen superstition and lies of the devil, so we burned them all ..." Today there are only three surviving Mayan codices."  -http://www.geocities.com/paulntobin/bookburn.html            
1562 CE French war between the Catholics and Calvinists. It lasted until 1593     Link      
1563 CE Foxe's Book of Martyrs by John Foxe and published by John Day with many subsequent editions.  The full version would be 2300 pages. Written in England.   Online version: http://www.ccel.org/f/foxe/martyrs/home.html Link      
1564 CE   William Shakespear was born          
1576 CE Catholic inquisition by Spanish King Philip II (1527-1598) who wanted to wipe out all Protestants in Belgium and Holland. In two attacks separated by 3 years. In the first attack, 8000 were killed (many raped and tortured). Over 4000 were killed in the next wave.            
1582 CE   Pope Gregory XIII decreed reform of the Julian calendar (because it had too many leap years), thus leading much of Catholic Europe away from the Julian (Old Style) calendar to the Gregorian (New Style). This is the beginning of the use of AD and BC in reference to year dates.          
1600 CE   Beginning of 17th Century C.E.           
1600 CE Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) was burned at the stake with his tongue in a gag. His offense was to state that the sun was not the center of the universe - that the universe was infinite and that there were many, many planets in the universe besides the ones associated with our sun.             
1616 CE              
1616 CE Galileo warned by the Inquisition not to defend the heliocentric views of Copernicus.            
1618 CE Beginning of the 30 Years War (1618 - 1648). Faught mostly on German territory, this war was between Protestants and Catholics. The 30-Years War, led by Catholic Roman Emperor, Ferinard II (1578-1648). The purpose of the war was to suppress Protestantism in the empire. It is estimated that 6 to 14 million people were killed in this war.          
1619 CE Humanist Lucilio Vanini was tortured and burnt at the stake for atheism.   English Puritans, known as Pilgrims, established a colony in America at Plymouth Rock to escape religious pluralism in England. Link      
1620 CE   The English attorney and advocate of the 'New Science', Francis Bacon (1561-1626) published his justly famous Novum organum, which sought to establish a method based on observation and experiment in opposition to Aristotle (who wrote the 'original' Organon). Link       English Puritans, known as Pilgrims, established a colony in America at Plymouth Rock to escape religious pluralism in England.
1633 CE Galileo arrested by Inquisition in Rome for Copernicanism hypothesis.   While nearly burned at the state, he was placed under house arrest for the remainder of his life and his work on the matter banned.        
c. 1637 CE Thomas Hobbes, author of Leviathan and noted philosopher, pointed out that Moses could not be the author if the Torah because of numerous statement in the writing like, "to this day" would be stated by someone who is writing it years later.            
1641 CE   Rene Descartes, of France (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), publishes one of his major publications, Meditations on First Philosophy (1641). In this, and in Principles of Philosophy (1644), he includes the famous performative utterance "I think, therefore I am."  Rene Descartes (pronounced de cart) is considered the father of analytic geometry and the founder of modern rationalism.        
1641 CE Catholics massacred Protestants in Ulster Ireland (between 2,500 and 10,000 killed)   This was a portion of the beginnings of the Irish Catholic/Protestant conflict in Ireland.        
1642 CE Puritans and Presbyterians on one side fought with Anglicans and Catholics on the other side in the English Civil War.            
1644 CE John Lightfoot (1602-1675), Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University contemporary of Ussher), publishes his chronology calculations that show that creation occurred on October 23, 4004 BCE.            
1650 CE Bishop James Ussher (1581-1656), published Annals veteris testamenti, a prima mundi origins deducti ("Annals of the Old Testament, deduced from the first origins of the world"). This established the timeline of the OT that is still in use today (dating the day of creation and of the Flood). He was  Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of All Ireland, and Vice-Chancellor of Trinity College in Dublin (he was very anti-Catholic, which caused problems with the Irish Catholics).   Dates for bibical stories mentioned in this timeline are taken from his work.        
1650 CE At Derby (England), George Fox ( July 1624 - Jan. 13, 1691) was was imprisoned for blasphemy. The judge mocked Foxes exhortation to "tremble at the word of the Lord" by called he and his followers "Quakers".    The term "Quakers" is slang for the Religious Society of Friends.        
c. 1655 CE Isaac le Peyrere was placed in prison from writing a book at said there were people on earth before Adam. He recanted and was released. He also pointed out that the writer of the Torah referred to the Children of Israel as "across the Jordan", which would have placed Moses in Israel, but he was never there.            
c. 1656  CE In Holland, Baruch Spinoza was excommunicated from his Jewish community for saying Moses didn't write Pentateuch            
1667 CE   Milton's Paradise Lost published.          
1692 CE Salem Witchcraft Trials - http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/salem/SAL_ACCT.HTM
  "By the time the witch-hunt ended, nineteen convicted witches were executed, at least four accused witches had died in prison, and one man, Giles Corey, had been pressed to death. About one to two hundred other persons were arrested and imprisoned on witchcraft charges. Two dogs were executed as suspected accomplices of witches."        
1700 CE   Beginning of 18th Century C.E.           
1721 CE   Johann Sebastian Bach presents the Branenburg concertos to his employer, Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cöthen, who was a Calvinist. Since Calvinist did not use "elaborate music in worship", Bach was allowed to create secular music.           
1738 CE Methodist Church was founded by Rev. John Wesley.            
1768 CE Hermann Samuel Reimarus died (1694 - 1768). Reimarus was the first to try to form a critical analysis of the chronology of the Gospels. He was a deist. His major work on this topic (4,000 pages) was not published until about 6 years after his death.     Link  
 
1776 CE   United States Declaration of Independence declared that the 13 Colonies were "Free and Independent States"          
1778 CE   Napoleon Bonaparte landed on the beaches of Alexandria with a massive French force.          
1799 CE   Rosetta Stone found (see 196 BCE)          
1800 CE   Beginning of 19th Century C.E.           
1802 CE   Human population 1 billion.    Wiki  
 
1802 CE Thomas Jefferson wrote his Wall of Separation Letter to the Danbury Baptist Association.   Read the letter here: http://www.usconstitution.net/jeffwall.html Link      
1809 CE   Charles Darwin was born.          
1816 CE   German philosopher, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, publishes the Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences. This is 3rd in a series of 4 volumes of work. It is said that his writings take much patience to understand.        
1822 CE   Rosetta Stone translated. See: http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/writing/rosetta.html Link      
1838 CE   Charles Darwin conceived his theory of natural selection.   Wiki  
 
1841 CE   Kierkegaard's (b.1813 - d. 1855) first major work, which was a university thesis on irony with continual reference to Socrates. Kierkegaard regards Aristophanes' portrayal of Socrates, in Aristophanes' The Clouds to be the most accurate representation of the man. Kierkegaard is sometimes called the father of existentialism. One of the views of existentialism is that the absence of a transcending force (God), man is entirely free. This makes him ultimately responsible for is actions.        
1845 CE Thomas Campbell, who co-founded the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) with his son, Alexander Campbell, wrote his views on slavery in the Millennial Harbinger, 3rd Series, Vol. 2, Bethany, VA, No. 1.   "you have my investigation of, and practical conclusion upon, the entire doctrine of Bible slavery. But still the whole of my premises will not admit of your conclusion, or rather assumption,--that "slavery is sinful in the extreme." On the contrary, like many other temporal evils, it appears to be a consequence and a punishment of sin."     Link to read whole article  
1845 CE The Southern Baptist split with the northern Baptists over slavery. The Southern Baptists argued that slavery was morally right because the bible gave laws on keeping slaves.            
1848 CE Elizabeth Cady Stanton, once said: "The Bible and the Church have been the greatest stumbling-blocks in the way of woman's emancipation (Free Thought Magazine, Vol. 14, 1896)." Elizabeth Cady Stanton was an outspoken American women rights advocate and abolitionist. This date reflects the time in history that she was most active.          
1854 CE Pope Pius XII established the Immaculate Conception as dogma.   The Immaculate Conception is a Catholic dogma that asserts that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was preserved by God from the stain of original sin at the time of her own conception. Wiki  
 
1859 CE   Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. Usually, it's referred to as The Origin of Species.   Link   Click here to read The Origin of the Species online at
 
1861 CE   Beginning of the American Civil War (1861 - 1865)          
1866 CE   Gregor Mendel published his research on "Experiments on Plant Hybridization". He would eventually become known as the "father of modern genetics." Creationist like to say that genetic mutations do not add information to the genes, therefore, it is impossible for mutations to increase genetic information. However, they are usually very vague on what they mean by "information". We also have many studies showing evolution increasing genetic variety and genetic material. See the link. Link  
 
1868 CE The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Aeterni Patris of June 29, 1868. Here, the doctrine that the Pope was infallible was established.            
1868 CE   The Moabite Stone (a.k.a. the Mesha Stele) was discovered by Rev.F.A.Klein in Dhiban, Jodan. Records events that occurred about 850 BCE. The stele describes:

   1. How Moab was conquered by Omri, King of Israel, as the result of the anger of the god Chemosh. Mesha's victories over Omri's son (not mentioned by name), over the men of Gad at Ataroth, and at Nebo and Jehaz;
   2. His public buildings, restoring the fortifications of his strong places and building a palace and reservoirs for water; and
   3. His wars against the Horonaim.
Wiki      
1879 CE   Reynolds v. United States - SCOTUS decision that religious practices which impair the public interest do not fall under the First Amendment's protection   Link      
1882 CE   Charles Darwin died.          
1887 CE   A local woman in Amarna (east bank of the Nile in Egypt) was digging for sebakh (decomposed organic matter that can be used a fuel or fertilizer) found a cache of over 300 cuneiform tablets. These became known as the Amarna Letters. The Amarna Letters reveal that Canaan was controlled by Egypt duing the time of Moses. If the Israelites attacked Canaanite nations in a genocide quest to wipe out all pagans before taking possesion of the land of Canaan, they would have raised the ire of Egypt.        
1898 CE   Spanish-American war          
1900 CE   Beginning of 20th Century C.E.           
1901 CE Pentecostal Church formed in Topeka, KS.            
1901 CE   The stela containing the Code of Hammurabi (see 1792 BCE) was found at Susa by French Orientalist Jean-Vincent Scheil. The Stela is now in the Louvre.          
1902 CE   The first of seven fragments of the Palermo Stone (listing Egyptian kings from 1st to 5th dynasties) was published by Heinrich Schäfer. See 2400 BCE.        
1903 CE W.L. Nash obtains a section of papyrus which would become known as the Nash Papyrus. See 200 BCE.            
1905 CE   George Santayana (16 December 1863–26 September 1952), was a Spanish philosopher, essayist, poet and novelist, best known for the oft-quoted statement, "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it," from Reason in Common Sense, the first volume of The Life of Reason. This is the year in which George Santayana published vol. 1 of Life of Reason. Later, Winston Churchill (1874-1965), Prime Minister of England, would say, "A nation that forgets its past is doomed to repeat it."       1
1910 CE The Fundamentals, a 12-volume collection of essays by 64 British and American scholars and preachers, became the ideological inspiration and foundation of Fundamentalism.     Link      
1910 CE George Went Hensley (from the hills of Tennessee starts handling snakes in the Church of God. The resulting church was the Church of God with Signs Following. In 1955, Mr. Hensley was bit by a 5 foot rattlesnake he was trying to return to its cage. He died refusing medical treatment.   This was a Pentecostal movement. Link      
1911 CE In Britain, John William Gott (1866 - 1922) was sent to prison for blasphemy. Blasphemy laws are still in effect in the UK. Blasphemy laws are still on some US state laws, even though it was deemed unconstitutional in 1952. He was sent to prison for describing Jesus as "Entering Jerusalem like a circus clown on the back of two donkeys." blasphemy   Wiki  
1914 CE   World War I from 1914 to 1918 France, Russia, the British Empire, Italy and the United States against Germany and Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria.       1
1917 CE Miracle of the Sun occurred in Fatima, Portugal. The event was attended by some 70,000 people. How many claimed to have seen the miracle "dancing of the sun" is controversial.    Those who claimed to have seen the dancing of the sun, said that you could stare at the sun with no discomfort. Once, as a kid, I stared at the sun that was setting for several minutes. I recall similar visual effects. Those who did claim to see something fantastic, gave witness. What they saw did not agree completely. Yet, many say the miracle was witnessed by 70K people. Similarly to Paul saying that Jesus appeared to more than 500 people at the same time.        
1924 CE   B.H. Streeter published his book The Four Gospels. He proposed a solution to the synoptic problem as Matthew and Luke both used Mark and combined it with material from another document, which he called Q and L (based on earlier German scholarship). In 1955, Austin Farrer challenged the consensus view of Q in his book "On Dispensing with Q". He argued that Matthew used Mark and Luke used Mark and Matthew.         
1925 CE Scopes Monkey Trial, in which John T. Scopes was convicted of teaching evolution in a public school.            
1927 CE   Human population 2 billion.           
1939 CE   World War II from 1939 to 1945. US, China, Soviet Union, France, UK, against Germany, Japan and Italy       1
1940 CE   Winston Churchill is appointed Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, whereupon, he appoints himself Minister of Defense.         1
1941 CE   Japan successfully attacks Peal Harbor.  This solidly drew the US into WWII. The attack was to remove the US fleet from being a threat to Japan as Japan attacked Britain. Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, who partially planned the attack, later said,
"In the first six to twelve months of a war with the United States and Great Britain I will run wild and win victory upon victory. But then, if the war continues after that, I have no expectation of success."

"You cannot invade the mainland United States. There would be a rifle behind each blade of grass."  "I fear all we have done is awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with a terrible resolve." 
       
1947 CE A young Bedouin herdsman found clay jars in caves near the dead sea that contained what are now called "The Dead Sea Scrolls".  It contained fragments of most of the OT, a complete Isaiah and a complete Habakkuk and non-biblical information about their commune.             
1948 CE   Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated by Gopal Godse and his brother, Nathuram Godse, and Narayan Apte. The brothers believed that Gandhi had turned his back on the Indian Independence Movement and that the partitioning of India was his fault.          
1949 CE Discovery of Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumran.            
1950 CE Pope Pius XII dogmatically and infallibly defined the Assumption of Mary on Nov. 1. The doctrine states that Mary was transported to heaven with her physical body and soul united.   The doctrine is not mentioned by the Church Fathers and was not "genuinely" mentioned by theologians until the 6th century.        
1950 CE   Korean War from 1950 to 1953          
1956 CE Archaeologist James B. Pritchard excavates el-Jib (Gibeon), which is 8 miles north of Jerusalem. See 1451 BCE.    I have Pritchard's book on the excavation. He says "One who is concerned about learning what lies back of the formation of the faith of biblical people is not disturbed to find that a certain biblical tradition lacks historical support, nor is he surprised to discover that the historical memory of the Bible is accurate." - Gibeon: Where the Sun Stood Still, p. 22.        
1961 CE   Human population 3 billion.           
1961 CE   John F. Kennedy sends 1,364 American advisors to South Vietnam (ends 1973)          
1962 CE Engel v. Vitale - The Supreme Court finds it is unconstitutional to require prayer in public school.     Link      
1963 CE   I was born. Now we can start. :)        
1963 CE   15,500 American troops in Vietnam.          
1963 CE   Martin Luther King Jr. leads his march on Washington, where he delivers his "I Have a Dream" speech.          
1966 CE   400,000 American troops in Vietnam.          
1967 CE   500,000 American troops in Vietnam.          
1973 CE   End of Vietnam war. Us lost over 50,000 soldiers with more than 300,000 wounded.          
1974 CE   Human population 4 billion.           
1970 CE     Russell was an outspoken rationalist who was kicked out of teaching positions on a couple of occasions for his lack of religiosity. He was an activist against nuclear weapons and a variety of other things. He was a logician, philosopher, and mathematician. He was lucid until the end, when he died of influenza. Bertrand Russell died at the age of 98 (b.18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970),      
1974 CE   Lucy, the Australopithecus afarensis skeleton, was discovered near the Awash river in Ethiopia.           
1976 CE   Richard Dawkins publishes The Selfish Gene, "which holds that evolution is best viewed as acting on genes, and that selection at the level of organisms or populations almost never overrides selection based on genes."   Wiki      
1978 CE The Mormon church changes its position and allows black men (all races) to become priests in their temples.            
1985 CE Wallace v. Jaffee - Alabama tried to reintroduce state-sponsored prayer into public school - See 1962 CE.     Link      
1986 CE   Richard Dawkins publishes The Blind Watchmaker, an argument for the theory of evolution by natural selection.          
1987 CE   Human population 5 billion.           
1989 CE   Allegheny County v. ACLU - The Supreme Court declares it to be illegal to have a purely religious display on government property.          
1994 CE Tel Dan Stele Stone found. It is a fragment (in three sections) of an Aramaic inscription on basalt, which appears to be from a stele erected for Ben-Hadad of the Aramaean nation, an enemy of the kingdom of Israel. The inscription has been dated between the 7th and 9th centuries BCE. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tel_Dan_Stele It mentions that a king from the "House of David" was killed. It's the first time David is found at an archealology site. There is some contraversy. See Wiki. Wiki      
1999 CE   Human population 6 billion.           
2000 CE   Beginning of 21th Century  C.E.           
2000 CE   The 3-year-old Australopithecus afarensis female known as Salem (aka Lucy's baby) was discovered in Dikika, Ethiopia. The infant was calculated to be 120,000 year older than Lucy 3.18 million years ago) at 3.3 million years ago.          
2001 CE In July, Oded Golan fools leading Israeli archaelolgists into believing that the tablet he had was from 1000 BCE describing repairs to King Solomon's Temple. When Oded Golan's home was searched, they found tools to create fakes. They also found the "James Ossuary", which was a fake stone tomb with the inscription showing it was "James the son of Joseph the brother of Jesus". There are still websites arguing the athenticity of the James Ossuary, and they guy who faked it is in Jail. Kind of funny. It has been suggested that because of the Faking laboratory found in Oded Golan's home, all archealology finds of the last 20 years not found at an active dig should be considered fake until proven otherwise.        
2001 CE   Al-Qaeda attack the World Trade Center in NY, the Pentagon in Arlington County VA and crash a plane in Somerset County PA. In addition to the 19 hijackers, 2,973 people died; another 24 are missing and presumed dead.          
2003 CE   The US invades Iraq.          
2004 CE Sam Harris published The End of Faith, inspired by the attacks on the World Tade Center. Some trace the surge of popularity in Atheism to this beginning.            
2005 CE In 2005 CE, Archaeologiest Dr. Ron E. Tappy discovered the oldest full Hebrew alphabet at Tel Zayit. It dated to the late 10th century. Click here to see a map of Tel Zayit.     Click here to see a map of Tel Zayit.    
2006 CE Pope Benedict XVI announces that the doctrine of Limbo (where unbaptized babies go) is untrue. Limbo was never an official doctrine, unlike the similar doctrine of Purgatory.            
2006 CE Richard Dawkins publishes The God Delusion and hosts a documentary called The Root of All Evil?   In my opinion, this book has caused more open discussion on the topic of religion than any other books published during my lifetime.